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Title: A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

We report initial results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg$^2$ area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median $$5\sigma$$ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i=22.5 and z=21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg$$^{2}$$, corresponding to 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% of the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i= 21.5,21.1,20.1 for object colors (i-z)=1,0,-1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-031-AE-PPD; arXiv:1602.04198; BNL-112471-2016-JA; LA-UR-16-20941
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1421418
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359; SC00112704; AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 823; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Orgs:
The DES Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; binaries: close; catalogs; gravitational waves; stars: neutron; surveys; Astronomy and Astrophysics
OSTI Identifier:
1253580
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1295213; OSTI ID: 1357114; OSTI ID: 1456944

Soares-Santos, M., Kessler, R., Berger, E., Annis, J., Brout, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Chen, H., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drlica-Wagner, A., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J., Gruendl, R. A., Herner, K., Holz, D., Lin, H., Marriner, J., Neilsen, E., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D., Sobreira, F., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Yanny, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Armstrong, R., Banerji, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brown, D. A., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cenko, S. B., Chornock, R., Crocce, M., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drout, M. R., Eifler, T. F., Estrada, J., Evrard, A. E., Fairhurst, S., Fernandez, E., Fischer, J., Fong, W., Fosalba, P., Fox, D. B., Fryer, C. L., Garcia-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Karliner, I., Kasen, D., Kent, S., Kuropatkin, N., Kuehn, K., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Margutti, R., Martini, P., Matheson, T., McMahon, R. G., Metzger, B. D., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Peoples, J., Plazas, A. A., Quataert, E., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Sheldon, E., Smith, M., Smith, N., Smith, R. C., Stebbins, A., Sutton, P. J., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thaler, J., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., and Weller, J.. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L33.
Soares-Santos, M., Kessler, R., Berger, E., Annis, J., Brout, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Chen, H., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drlica-Wagner, A., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J., Gruendl, R. A., Herner, K., Holz, D., Lin, H., Marriner, J., Neilsen, E., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D., Sobreira, F., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Yanny, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Armstrong, R., Banerji, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brown, D. A., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cenko, S. B., Chornock, R., Crocce, M., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drout, M. R., Eifler, T. F., Estrada, J., Evrard, A. E., Fairhurst, S., Fernandez, E., Fischer, J., Fong, W., Fosalba, P., Fox, D. B., Fryer, C. L., Garcia-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Karliner, I., Kasen, D., Kent, S., Kuropatkin, N., Kuehn, K., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Margutti, R., Martini, P., Matheson, T., McMahon, R. G., Metzger, B. D., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Peoples, J., Plazas, A. A., Quataert, E., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Sheldon, E., Smith, M., Smith, N., Smith, R. C., Stebbins, A., Sutton, P. J., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thaler, J., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., & Weller, J.. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L33.
Soares-Santos, M., Kessler, R., Berger, E., Annis, J., Brout, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Chen, H., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drlica-Wagner, A., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J., Gruendl, R. A., Herner, K., Holz, D., Lin, H., Marriner, J., Neilsen, E., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D., Sobreira, F., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Yanny, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Armstrong, R., Banerji, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brown, D. A., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cenko, S. B., Chornock, R., Crocce, M., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drout, M. R., Eifler, T. F., Estrada, J., Evrard, A. E., Fairhurst, S., Fernandez, E., Fischer, J., Fong, W., Fosalba, P., Fox, D. B., Fryer, C. L., Garcia-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Karliner, I., Kasen, D., Kent, S., Kuropatkin, N., Kuehn, K., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Margutti, R., Martini, P., Matheson, T., McMahon, R. G., Metzger, B. D., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Peoples, J., Plazas, A. A., Quataert, E., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Sheldon, E., Smith, M., Smith, N., Smith, R. C., Stebbins, A., Sutton, P. J., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thaler, J., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., and Weller, J.. 2016. "A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L33. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1253580.
@article{osti_1253580,
title = {A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914},
author = {Soares-Santos, M. and Kessler, R. and Berger, E. and Annis, J. and Brout, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Chen, H. and Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doctor, Z. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Farr, B. and Finley, D. A. and Flaugher, B. and Foley, R. J. and Frieman, J. and Gruendl, R. A. and Herner, K. and Holz, D. and Lin, H. and Marriner, J. and Neilsen, E. and Rest, A. and Sako, M. and Scolnic, D. and Sobreira, F. and Walker, A. R. and Wester, W. and Yanny, B. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Allam, S. and Armstrong, R. and Banerji, M. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernstein, R. A. and Bertin, E. and Brown, D. A. and Burke, D. L. and Capozzi, D. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Cenko, S. B. and Chornock, R. and Crocce, M. and D’Andrea, C. B. and da Costa, L. N. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and Drout, M. R. and Eifler, T. F. and Estrada, J. and Evrard, A. E. and Fairhurst, S. and Fernandez, E. and Fischer, J. and Fong, W. and Fosalba, P. and Fox, D. B. and Fryer, C. L. and Garcia-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Karliner, I. and Kasen, D. and Kent, S. and Kuropatkin, N. and Kuehn, K. and Lahav, O. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Margutti, R. and Martini, P. and Matheson, T. and McMahon, R. G. and Metzger, B. D. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Mohr, J. J. and Nichol, R. C. and Nord, B. and Ogando, R. and Peoples, J. and Plazas, A. A. and Quataert, E. and Romer, A. K. and Roodman, A. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Sheldon, E. and Smith, M. and Smith, N. and Smith, R. C. and Stebbins, A. and Sutton, P. J. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thaler, J. and Thomas, R. C. and Tucker, D. L. and Vikram, V. and Wechsler, R. H. and Weller, J.},
abstractNote = {We report initial results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg$^2$ area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median $5\sigma$ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i=22.5 and z=21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg$^{2}$, corresponding to 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% of the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i= 21.5,21.1,20.1 for object colors (i-z)=1,0,-1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L33},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 823,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}