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Title: Particle acceleration and plasma dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the magnetically dominated regime

Abstract

Magnetic reconnection is thought to be the driver for many explosive phenomena in the universe. The energy release and particle acceleration during reconnection have been proposed as a mechanism for producing high-energy emissions and cosmic rays. We carry out two- and three-dimensional (3D) kinetic simulations to investigate relativistic magnetic reconnection and the associated particle acceleration. The simulations focus on electron–positron plasmas starting with a magnetically dominated, force-free current sheet (σ ≡ B2 / (4πnemec2) >> 1). For this limit, we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process accomplished by the curvature drift of particles along the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra f α (γ - 1)-p and approaches p = 1 for sufficiently large σ and system size. Eventually most of the available magnetic free energy is converted into nonthermal particle kinetic energy. An analytic model is presented to explain the key results and predict a general condition for the formation of power-law distributions. The development of reconnection in these regimes leads to relativistic inflow and outflow speeds and enhanced reconnection rates relative to nonrelativistic regimes. In the 3Dmore » simulation, the interplay between secondary kink and tearing instabilities leads to strong magnetic turbulence, but does not significantly change the energy conversion, reconnection rate, or particle acceleration. This paper suggests that relativistic reconnection sites are strong sources of nonthermal particles, which may have important implications for a variety of high-energy astrophysical problems.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1240428
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-14-29249
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 806; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; acceleration of particles; magnetic reconnection; relativistic process; gamma-ray bursts: general; galaxies: jets; pulsars: general

Citation Formats

Guo, Fan, Liu, Yi -Hsin, Daughton, William, and Li, Hui. Particle acceleration and plasma dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the magnetically dominated regime. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/167.
Guo, Fan, Liu, Yi -Hsin, Daughton, William, & Li, Hui. Particle acceleration and plasma dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the magnetically dominated regime. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/167.
Guo, Fan, Liu, Yi -Hsin, Daughton, William, and Li, Hui. Wed . "Particle acceleration and plasma dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the magnetically dominated regime". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/167. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1240428.
@article{osti_1240428,
title = {Particle acceleration and plasma dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the magnetically dominated regime},
author = {Guo, Fan and Liu, Yi -Hsin and Daughton, William and Li, Hui},
abstractNote = {Magnetic reconnection is thought to be the driver for many explosive phenomena in the universe. The energy release and particle acceleration during reconnection have been proposed as a mechanism for producing high-energy emissions and cosmic rays. We carry out two- and three-dimensional (3D) kinetic simulations to investigate relativistic magnetic reconnection and the associated particle acceleration. The simulations focus on electron–positron plasmas starting with a magnetically dominated, force-free current sheet (σ ≡ B2 / (4πnemec2) >> 1). For this limit, we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process accomplished by the curvature drift of particles along the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra f α (γ - 1)-p and approaches p = 1 for sufficiently large σ and system size. Eventually most of the available magnetic free energy is converted into nonthermal particle kinetic energy. An analytic model is presented to explain the key results and predict a general condition for the formation of power-law distributions. The development of reconnection in these regimes leads to relativistic inflow and outflow speeds and enhanced reconnection rates relative to nonrelativistic regimes. In the 3D simulation, the interplay between secondary kink and tearing instabilities leads to strong magnetic turbulence, but does not significantly change the energy conversion, reconnection rate, or particle acceleration. This paper suggests that relativistic reconnection sites are strong sources of nonthermal particles, which may have important implications for a variety of high-energy astrophysical problems.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/167},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 806,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}

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    journal, August 2019

    • Webb, G. M.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Mostafavi, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2fca

    Formation of Power-law Electron Energy Spectra in Three-dimensional Low- β Magnetic Reconnection
    journal, October 2019


    The Interplay of Magnetically Dominated Turbulence and Magnetic Reconnection in Producing Nonthermal Particles
    journal, November 2019


    Large-amplitude Blazar Polarization Angle Swing as a Signature of Magnetic Reconnection
    journal, August 2018


    Fast Ion Heating in Transient Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection via an Intrinsic Stochastic Mechanism
    journal, November 2018


    Determining the Dominant Acceleration Mechanism during Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Large-scale Systems
    journal, July 2019