## Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields

## Abstract

The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

- Authors:

- Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1233562

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1222047

- Report Number(s):
- LA-UR-15-24887

Journal ID: ISSN 1539-3755; PLEEE8; TRN: US1600416

- Grant/Contract Number:
- AC52-06NA25396

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (Print)

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Name: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (Print); Journal Volume: 92; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1539-3755

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society (APS)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

### Citation Formats

```
Deffner, Sebastian, and Saxena, Avadh. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields. United States: N. p., 2015.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032137.
```

```
Deffner, Sebastian, & Saxena, Avadh. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032137.
```

```
Deffner, Sebastian, and Saxena, Avadh. Mon .
"Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032137. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1233562.
```

```
@article{osti_1233562,
```

title = {Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields},

author = {Deffner, Sebastian and Saxena, Avadh},

abstractNote = {The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032137},

journal = {Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (Print)},

number = 3,

volume = 92,

place = {United States},

year = {2015},

month = {9}

}

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