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Title: Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [4] ;  [7] ;  [7] ;  [1] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter; Center for Free-electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg (Germany).
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter
  5. Dublin City Univ., Dublin (Ireland). School of Physical Sciences and National Center for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
  8. Lodz Univ. of Technology, Wólczanska (Poland). Dept. of Microelectronics and Computer Science
  9. Univ. of Hamburg (Germany).
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: