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Title: Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials

The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivating interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile classmore » of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application space, the benefits and challenges of novel ALD processes are emphasized and common trends are summarized. We conclude with a perspective on potential future directions for metal chalcogenide ALD as well as untapped opportunities. As a result, we consider challenges that must be addressed prior to implementing ALD metal sulfides into future device architectures.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; SC0001059
Published Article
Journal Name:
Accounts of Chemical Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CEES partners with Argonne National Laboratory (lead); University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Northwest University; Journal ID: ISSN 0001-4842
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; energy storage (including batteries and capacitors); charge transport; materials and chemistry by design; synthesis (novel materials); 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1210267; OSTI ID: 1224204