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Title: Direct Measurement of Room-Temperature Nondiffusive Thermal Transport Over Micron Distances in a Silicon Membrane

Abstract

The “textbook” phonon mean free path of heat carrying phonons in silicon at room temperature is $${\sim}40\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{nm}$$. However, a large contribution to the thermal conductivity comes from low-frequency phonons with much longer mean free paths. We present here a simple experiment demonstrating that room-temperature thermal transport in Si significantly deviates from the diffusion model already at micron distances. Absorption of crossed laser pulses in a freestanding silicon membrane sets up a sinusoidal temperature profile that is monitored via diffraction of a probe laser beam. By changing the period of the thermal grating we vary the heat transport distance within the range $${\sim}1-10\text{ }\text{ }{\mu}\mathrm{m}$$. At small distances, we observe a reduction in the effective thermal conductivity indicating a transition from the diffusive to the ballistic transport regime for the low-frequency part of the phonon spectrum.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Catalan Inst. of Nanotechnology, Barcelona (Spain); Univ. College Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Physics. Tyndall National Inst.
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  4. Catalan Inst. of Nanotechnology, Barcelona (Spain)
  5. Catalan Inst. of Nanotechnology, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Inst. for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1081191
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1101856
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Johnson, Jeremy A., Maznev, A. A., Cuffe, John, Eliason, Jeffrey K., Minnich, Austin J., Kehoe, Timothy, Torres, Clivia M. Sotomayor, Chen, Gang, and Nelson, Keith A. Direct Measurement of Room-Temperature Nondiffusive Thermal Transport Over Micron Distances in a Silicon Membrane. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.025901.
Johnson, Jeremy A., Maznev, A. A., Cuffe, John, Eliason, Jeffrey K., Minnich, Austin J., Kehoe, Timothy, Torres, Clivia M. Sotomayor, Chen, Gang, & Nelson, Keith A. Direct Measurement of Room-Temperature Nondiffusive Thermal Transport Over Micron Distances in a Silicon Membrane. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.025901.
Johnson, Jeremy A., Maznev, A. A., Cuffe, John, Eliason, Jeffrey K., Minnich, Austin J., Kehoe, Timothy, Torres, Clivia M. Sotomayor, Chen, Gang, and Nelson, Keith A. Tue . "Direct Measurement of Room-Temperature Nondiffusive Thermal Transport Over Micron Distances in a Silicon Membrane". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.025901. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1081191.
@article{osti_1081191,
title = {Direct Measurement of Room-Temperature Nondiffusive Thermal Transport Over Micron Distances in a Silicon Membrane},
author = {Johnson, Jeremy A. and Maznev, A. A. and Cuffe, John and Eliason, Jeffrey K. and Minnich, Austin J. and Kehoe, Timothy and Torres, Clivia M. Sotomayor and Chen, Gang and Nelson, Keith A.},
abstractNote = {The “textbook” phonon mean free path of heat carrying phonons in silicon at room temperature is ${\sim}40\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{nm}$. However, a large contribution to the thermal conductivity comes from low-frequency phonons with much longer mean free paths. We present here a simple experiment demonstrating that room-temperature thermal transport in Si significantly deviates from the diffusion model already at micron distances. Absorption of crossed laser pulses in a freestanding silicon membrane sets up a sinusoidal temperature profile that is monitored via diffraction of a probe laser beam. By changing the period of the thermal grating we vary the heat transport distance within the range ${\sim}1-10\text{ }\text{ }{\mu}\mathrm{m}$. At small distances, we observe a reduction in the effective thermal conductivity indicating a transition from the diffusive to the ballistic transport regime for the low-frequency part of the phonon spectrum.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.025901},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1 : (color online). Schematics of the sample and the experiment. (a) Freestanding Si membranes are fabricated from SOI wafers by backside etching. (b) Pump pulses are crossed in the silicon membrane, generating the transient thermal grating monitored via diffraction of the probe beam. Diffracted probe light is combinedmore » with a reference beam and directed to a fast detector.« less

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      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.