# Nonlinear saturation and oscillations of collisionless zonal flows

## Abstract

In homogeneous drift-wave (DW) turbulence, zonal flows (ZFs) can be generated via a modulational instability (MI) that either saturates monotonically or leads to oscillations of the ZF energy at the nonlinear stage. This dynamics is often attributed as the predator-prey oscillations induced by ZF collisional damping; however, similar dynamics is also observed in collisionless ZFs, in which case a different mechanism must be involved. Here, we propose a semi-analytic theory that explains the transition between the oscillations and saturation of collisionless ZFs within the quasilinear Hasegawa-Mima model. By analyzing phase-space trajectories of DW quanta (driftons) within the geometrical-optics (GO) approximation, we argue that the parameter that controls this transition is N ~ \gamma_MI/\omega_DW, where \gamma_MI is the MI growth rate and \omega_DW is the linear DW frequency. We argue that at N << 1, ZFs oscillate due to the presence of so-called passing drifton trajectories, and we derive an approximate formula for the ZF amplitude as a function of time in this regime. We also show that at N >~ 1, the passing trajectories vanish and ZFs saturate monotonically, which can be attributed to phase mixing of higher-order sidebands. A modification of N that accounts for effects beyond the GOmore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Product Type:
- Dataset

- Research Org.:
- Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- U. S. Department of Energy

- Keywords:
- collisionless zonal flows, modulational instability, nonlinear stage, predator-prey oscillations

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1562105

- DOI:
- 10.11578/1562105

### Citation Formats

```
Zhu, Hongxuan, Zhou, Yao, and Dodin, I Y.
```*Nonlinear saturation and oscillations of collisionless zonal flows*. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.11578/1562105.

```
Zhu, Hongxuan, Zhou, Yao, & Dodin, I Y.
```*Nonlinear saturation and oscillations of collisionless zonal flows*. United States. doi:10.11578/1562105.

```
Zhu, Hongxuan, Zhou, Yao, and Dodin, I Y. 2019.
"Nonlinear saturation and oscillations of collisionless zonal flows". United States. doi:10.11578/1562105. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1562105. Pub date:Wed May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2019
```

```
@article{osti_1562105,
```

title = {Nonlinear saturation and oscillations of collisionless zonal flows},

author = {Zhu, Hongxuan and Zhou, Yao and Dodin, I Y},

abstractNote = {In homogeneous drift-wave (DW) turbulence, zonal flows (ZFs) can be generated via a modulational instability (MI) that either saturates monotonically or leads to oscillations of the ZF energy at the nonlinear stage. This dynamics is often attributed as the predator-prey oscillations induced by ZF collisional damping; however, similar dynamics is also observed in collisionless ZFs, in which case a different mechanism must be involved. Here, we propose a semi-analytic theory that explains the transition between the oscillations and saturation of collisionless ZFs within the quasilinear Hasegawa-Mima model. By analyzing phase-space trajectories of DW quanta (driftons) within the geometrical-optics (GO) approximation, we argue that the parameter that controls this transition is N ~ \gamma_MI/\omega_DW, where \gamma_MI is the MI growth rate and \omega_DW is the linear DW frequency. We argue that at N << 1, ZFs oscillate due to the presence of so-called passing drifton trajectories, and we derive an approximate formula for the ZF amplitude as a function of time in this regime. We also show that at N >~ 1, the passing trajectories vanish and ZFs saturate monotonically, which can be attributed to phase mixing of higher-order sidebands. A modification of N that accounts for effects beyond the GO limit is also proposed. These analytic results are tested against both quasilinear and fully-nonlinear simulations. They also explain the earlier numerical results by Connaughton et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 654, 207 (2010)] and Gallagher et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 122115 (2012)] and offer a revised perspective on what the control parameter is that determines the transition from the oscillations to saturation of collisionless ZFs.},

doi = {10.11578/1562105},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {5}

}