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Title: Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012

Abstract

Plant roots play a critical role in ecosystem function in arctic tundra, but root dynamics in these ecosystems are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we synthesized available literature on tundra roots, including their distribution, dynamics, and contribution to ecosystem carbon and nutrient fluxes, and we highlighted key aspects of their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Across all tundra ecosystems, belowground plant biomass exceeded aboveground biomass, with the exception of polar desert tundra. Roots were shallowly-distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws annually, and were often found in surface organic soil horizons. Root traits including distribution, chemistry, anatomy, and resource partitioning play an important role in controlling plant species competition, and therefore ecosystem carbon and nutrient fluxes, under changing climatic conditions, but have only been quantified for a small fraction of tundra plants. Further, the annual production and mortality of fine roots are key components of ecosystem processes in tundra, but extant data are sparse. Tundra root traits and dynamics should be the focus of future research efforts. Better representation of the dynamics and characteristics of tundra roots will improve the utility of models for evaluating the responses of tundra ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. Dataset DOI:more » 10.5440/1114222; https://doi.org/10.5440/1114222« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Other Number(s):
NGA059
ngee_898DB1AF4A9FED3D5DCE6DFB59B700492018_07_17_12210333
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Product Type:
Dataset
Research Org.:
Next Generation Ecosystems Experiment - Arctic, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US); NGEE Arctic, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences
Keywords:
Average_root diameter_mm; Maximum_rooting_depth_cm; Root_depth_distribution; Year_Final; Project; PFT; Soil_cores; Publication_year; Aerenchyma; Notes; Belowground biomass; Carbon_cycling; Aboveground biomass; Location_Place; Polygonal_topography; Root_production; Root turnover decomposition; Species; Ingrowth_cores; Longitude_Decimal; Pot_Tiller; Nutrient_cycling; Minirhizotrons; Study; Fineroot_Leaf; Isotopic_tracer_stable_isotope; Mycorrhizae; Review_Paper; B_A; Study_Description; Root_standing_crop; Elevation_m; Soil monolith_Excavation; Root_morphology; Author_year; Experimental_Manipulation; Environmental_forcing; Year_Initial; Latitude_Decimal; Journal_Book_Thesis; Ecosystem; Degraded_permafrost; Polar_desert; root biomass; Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska; Harp, USSR; Kevo, Finland; Hardangervidda, Norway; Rea Point, Melville Island, Western Queen Elizabeth Islands; Ny-London, Blomstrandhalvoya, Spitsbergen, Norway; Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska; Kamasjaure, Sweden; Smith Lake, Alaska; Pyasina River, Tareya station, Western Taimyr; Komi, ASSR; Fairbanks, Alaska; Kevo Sub-Arctic Research Institute, Finland; Atigun River, Alaska; Devon Island, Canada; Malloch Dome, Ellef Ringnes Island, Western Queen Elizabeth Islands; Sibik, Eastern Siberia; Somerset Island, Canadian high arctic; Zackenberg Research Station, Northeastern Greenland; Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway; Disko Island, Greenland; Northwestern Finland; Komperdell Alm, Austria; Abisko, Sweden; Eagle Creek, Alaska; Prudhoe Bay, Alaska; Coldfoot, Alaska; Barrow, Alaska; Eastern Taimyr; King Christian Island, Canada; Pituffik (Thule), Greenland; Taimyr, USSR; Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland; Vorkuta city, Komi ASSR; Atkasook, Alaska; Stordalen, Sweden; Washington Creek, Alaska; Sagavanirktok River, Alaska; Truelove, Devon island, Northwest Territories, Canada; Tanana River floodplain, Fairbanks, Alaska; Western Taimyr; Meade River, Alaska; Adventdalen, Svalbard; La Perouse Bay, Manitoba, Canada; Everett Pond, Alaska; Sag River, Alaska; Agapa Settlement, Western Taimyr; Toolik Lake, Alaska; Samoylov, Lena Delta, Northern Siberia; Alaska; Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen, Norway; Eagle Summit, Alaska; Churchhill, Manifoba, Canada; Betty Pingo, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska; Imnavait Creek watershed, Northern Foothills, Alaska; Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island; Hidden Pond, Alaska; Bathurst Island, Canadian high arctic; Cornwallis Island, Canadian High Arctic; Rylekaerene, Greenland; Cape Thompson, Alaska; Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada; Dempster, Yukon, Canada; Sagwon Bluff, Alaska; Mt. Paras, Signaldalen, Troms, Norway; Circle Hot Springs, Alaska; Old Man, Alaska; Ogoturuk Creek, Alaska; Truelove Lowland, Devon island, Northwest Territories, Canada; Prince of Wales, Canadian high arctic; Brandalpynten, Knudsenheia peninsula, Spitsbergen, Norway; Snowden Mountain, Alaska; Imnavait Creek, Alaska; Eight Mile Lake, Healy, Alaska; Sagwon, Alaska; Abisko Scientific Research Station, Sweden; Sagwon Hills, Alaska; Stordalen mire, Abisko, Sweden; Koryakskaya Zemlya; Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed; Skirhasjohka valley, Fennoscandia; Latnjajaure, Sweden; Cape Abernethy, King Christian Island, Western Queen Elizabeth Islands; Timberline, Alaska
OSTI Identifier:
1114222
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.5440/1114222

Citation Formats

Iversen, Colleen, Sloan, Victoria, Sullivan, Patrick, Euskirchen, Eugenie, McGuire, David, Norby, Richard, Walker, Anthony, Warren, Jeffrey, and Wullschleger, Stan. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.5440/1114222.
Iversen, Colleen, Sloan, Victoria, Sullivan, Patrick, Euskirchen, Eugenie, McGuire, David, Norby, Richard, Walker, Anthony, Warren, Jeffrey, & Wullschleger, Stan. Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.5440/1114222
Iversen, Colleen, Sloan, Victoria, Sullivan, Patrick, Euskirchen, Eugenie, McGuire, David, Norby, Richard, Walker, Anthony, Warren, Jeffrey, and Wullschleger, Stan. 2014. "Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.5440/1114222. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1114222. Pub date:Sun Aug 31 00:00:00 EDT 2014
@article{osti_1114222,
title = {Plant Root Characteristics and Dynamics in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems, 1960-2012},
author = {Iversen, Colleen and Sloan, Victoria and Sullivan, Patrick and Euskirchen, Eugenie and McGuire, David and Norby, Richard and Walker, Anthony and Warren, Jeffrey and Wullschleger, Stan},
abstractNote = {Plant roots play a critical role in ecosystem function in arctic tundra, but root dynamics in these ecosystems are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we synthesized available literature on tundra roots, including their distribution, dynamics, and contribution to ecosystem carbon and nutrient fluxes, and we highlighted key aspects of their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Across all tundra ecosystems, belowground plant biomass exceeded aboveground biomass, with the exception of polar desert tundra. Roots were shallowly-distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws annually, and were often found in surface organic soil horizons. Root traits including distribution, chemistry, anatomy, and resource partitioning play an important role in controlling plant species competition, and therefore ecosystem carbon and nutrient fluxes, under changing climatic conditions, but have only been quantified for a small fraction of tundra plants. Further, the annual production and mortality of fine roots are key components of ecosystem processes in tundra, but extant data are sparse. Tundra root traits and dynamics should be the focus of future research efforts. Better representation of the dynamics and characteristics of tundra roots will improve the utility of models for evaluating the responses of tundra ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. Dataset DOI: 10.5440/1114222; https://doi.org/10.5440/1114222},
doi = {10.5440/1114222},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {8}
}