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Title: ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide amore » dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold. « less
Authors:
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Product Type:
Dataset
Research Org(s):
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Collaborations:
PNL, BNL,ANL,ORNL
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences; ARM; biraud-co2; SGP; AOS-CO2
OSTI Identifier:
1069291
  1. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models. ARM data include routine data products, value-added products (VAPs), field campaign data, complementary external data products from collaborating programs, and data contributed by ARM principal investigators for use by the scientific community. Data quality reports, graphical displays of data availability/quality, and data plots are also available from the ARM Data Center. Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams are generally available for download within 48 hours.
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  1. The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The samplemore » and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold. « less
  2. Determinations of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios are made using a Siemens Ultramat-3 nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The NDIR CO2 analyzer is connected via a gas manifold consisting of stainless steel tubing and computer-controlled solenoid switches to 12 gas cylinders and 2 sample air lines.more » The NDIR analyzer compares ambient air CO2 mixing ratios relative to known CO2 mixing ratios in tanks of compressed reference gases. The analyzer operates in a differential mode, with a "zero" reference gas of CO2 mixing ratio 20 to 30 parts per million (ppm) below ambient air CO2 levels flowing continuously through one cell of the analyzer at ~10 mL/min. When atmospheric CO2 is measured, a diaphragm pump pulls air through a sampling line at ~5 L/min. A small fraction of this (180 mL/min) is dried cryogenically to a temperature of approximately ¬70° Celsius and passed through the sample cell of the CO2 analyzer. Both the "zero" and sample gas are exhausted into the observatory building. « less
  3. Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using amore » Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5 L/min. Every 30 minutes, the flow is replaced by a stream of calibrating gas or "working reference gas". In December 1983, CO2-in-N2 calibration gases were replaced with the currently used CO2-in-air calibration gases. These calibration gases and other reference gases are compared periodically to determine the instrument sensitivity and to check for possible contamination in the air-handling system. These reference gases are themselves calibrated against specific standard gases whose CO2 concentrations are determined manometrically. Greater details about the sampling methods at Mauna Loa are given in Keeling et al. (1982) and Keeling et al. (2002). « less
  4. Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe for the 10-year period from December 1981 through November 1991 have been processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a data set designed for use in cloud analyses. The information in these reports relating to clouds, including themore » present weather information, was extracted and put through a series of quality control checks. Reports not meeting certain quality control standards were rejected, as were reports from buoys and automatic weather stations. Correctable inconsistencies within reports were edited for consistency, so that the "edited cloud report" can be used for cloud analysis without further quality checking. Cases of "sky obscured" were interpreted by reference to the present weather code as to whether they indicated fog, rain or snow and were given appropriate cloud type designations. Nimbostratus clouds, which are not specifically coded for in the standard synoptic code, were also given a special designation. Changes made to an original report are indicated in the edited report so that the original report can be reconstructed if desired. While low cloud amount is normally given directly in the synoptic report, the edited cloud report also includes the amounts, either directly reported or inferred, of middle and high clouds, both the non-overlapped amounts and the "actual" amounts (which may be overlapped). Since illumination from the moon is important for the adequate detection of clouds at night, both the relative lunar illuminance and the solar altitude are given, as well as a parameter that indicates whether our recommended illuminance criterion was satisfied. This data set contains 124 million reports from land stations and 15 million reports from ships. Each report is 56 characters in length. The archive consists of 240 files, one file for each month of data for land and ocean separately. With this data set a user can develop a climatology for any particular cloud type or group of types, for any geographical region and any spatial and temporal resolution desired. « less
  5. From 1972 through 1981, air samples were collected in glass flasks from aircraft at a variety of latitudes and altitudes over Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. The samples were analyzed for CO2 concentrations with nondispersive infrared gas analysis. The resulting data contain the sampling dates,more » type of aircraft, flight number, flask identification number, sampling time, geographic sector, distance in kilometers from the listed distance measuring equipment (DME) station, station number of the radio navigation distance measuring equipment, altitude of the aircraft above mean sea level, sample analysis date, flask pressure, tertiary standards used for the analysis, analyzer used, and CO2 concentration. These data represent the first published record of CO2 concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere expressed in the WMO 1981 CO2 Calibration Scale and provide a precise record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over Australia and New Zealand. « less