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Title: Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book

Abstract

Within the next ten years the Standard Model will likely have to be modified to encompass a wide range of newly discovered phenomena, new elementary particles, new symmetries, and new dynamics. These phenomena will be revealed through experiment with high energy particle accelerators, mainly the LHC. This will represent a revolution in our understanding of nature, and will either bring us closer to an understanding of all phenomena, through existing ideas such as supersymmetry to superstrings, or will cause us to scramble to find new ideas and a new sense of direction. We are thus entering a dramatic and important time in the quest to understand the fundamental laws of nature and their role in shaping the universe. The energy scales now probed by the Tevatron, of order hundreds of GeV, will soon be subsumed by the LHC and extended up to a few TeV. We expect the unknown structure of the mysterious symmetry breaking of the Standard Model to be revealed. We will then learn the answer to a question that has a fundamental bearing upon our own existence: 'What is the origin of mass?' All modern theories of 'electroweak symmetry breaking' involve many new particles, mainly to providemore » a 'naturalness' rationale for the weak scale. Supersymmetry (SUSY) represents extra (fermionic) dimensions of space, leading to a doubling of the number of known elementary particles and ushering in many additional new particles and phenomena associated with the various symmetry breaking sectors. The possibility of additional bosonic dimensions of space would likewise usher in an even greater multitude of new states and new phenomena. Alternatively, any new spectroscopy may indicate new principles we have not yet anticipated, and we may see new strong forces and/or a dynamical origin of mass. The wealth of new particles, parameters, CP-phases, and other phenomena carries important implications for precision quark flavor physics experiments that are uniquely sensitive probes of new phenomena. We have already begun to see the enlargement of the Standard Model in the leptonic sector. Neutrino masses and mixing angles, which in the early 1990's were unknown, must now be incorporated into our full description of nature. In a minimal scenario of Majorana masses and mixings amongst the three known left-handed neutrinos, we see a strong hint of a new and very large mass scale, possibly associated with grand unification or the scale of quantum gravity, the Planck mass. We are not yet sure what the proper description of neutrino masses and mixing angles will be. Experiments may reveal additional unexpected particles coupled to the neutrino sector. New phenomena, such as leptonic CP-violation, will be major focal points of our expanding understanding of the lepton sector. There is much to be done with experiment to attack the issues that neutrinos now present. Already, developments in neutrino physics and the possibility of a novel source of CP-violation in the lepton sector have spawned hopes that the cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry may be explained through leptogenesis. Neutrino physics, together with the search for new energy frontier physics, offers the possibility of experimental handles on the questions of dark matter and dark energy. Without the discovery of new particles in accelerator experiments, the telescope-based cosmological observations of the early universe would remain unexplained puzzles. The process of understanding the laws of physics in greater detail through accelerator-based high energy physics will potentially have incisive impact on our understanding of dark matter and dark energy. Precision flavor physics in both the quark and the lepton sectors offers a window on the sensitive entanglement of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics with rare processes, through quantum loop effects involving known or new states. Flavor physics offers sensitive indirect probes and may be the first place to reveal additional key components of the post-Standard Model physics. The main arenas for quark flavor physics include strange, charm and beauty, hence kaons, D-mesons, B-mesons and heavy baryons. A remarkable historical paradigm for the importance of flavor physics is the well known suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. The analysis of the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference by Gaillard and Lee, 35 years ago in the Fermilab Theory Group, led to the confirmation of the GIM mechanism and predicted the mass of the charm quark, m{sub c} {approx} 1.5 GeV, definitively and prior to its discovery. This, today, implies an astonishing constraint on SUSY models, e.g., that the down and strange squarks are mass degenerate to 1:10{sup 5}. This, in turn, has spawned a new working hypothesis called 'Minimal Flavor Violation' (MFV). But is MFV really a true principle operating in nature and, if so, where does it come from? Such questions can only be addressed in precision flavor physics experiments.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
990840
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-FN-0904
TRN: US1007454
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; B MESONS; D MESONS; ELEMENTARY PARTICLES; FERMILAB TEVATRON; GRAND UNIFIED THEORY; HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS; MASS DIFFERENCE; NEUTRAL CURRENTS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; PHYSICS; PROTON SOURCES; QUANTUM GRAVITY; QUARKS; SPECTROSCOPY; STANDARD MODEL; SYMMETRY; SYMMETRY BREAKING

Citation Formats

Appel, Jeffrey, /Fermilab, Asner, David, /Carleton U., Bigi, Ikaros, /Notre Dame U., Bryman, Douglas, /British Columbia U., Buras, Andrzej, /Munich, Tech. U., Carena, Marcela /Fermilab, Carosi, Roberto, /INFN, Pisa, Christian, Dave, /Fermilab, Conrad, Janet, /Columbia U., Diwan, Milind, /Brookhaven, Dukes, Craig, and /Virginia U. /Fermilab. Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/990840.
Appel, Jeffrey, /Fermilab, Asner, David, /Carleton U., Bigi, Ikaros, /Notre Dame U., Bryman, Douglas, /British Columbia U., Buras, Andrzej, /Munich, Tech. U., Carena, Marcela /Fermilab, Carosi, Roberto, /INFN, Pisa, Christian, Dave, /Fermilab, Conrad, Janet, /Columbia U., Diwan, Milind, /Brookhaven, Dukes, Craig, & /Virginia U. /Fermilab. Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book. United States. doi:10.2172/990840.
Appel, Jeffrey, /Fermilab, Asner, David, /Carleton U., Bigi, Ikaros, /Notre Dame U., Bryman, Douglas, /British Columbia U., Buras, Andrzej, /Munich, Tech. U., Carena, Marcela /Fermilab, Carosi, Roberto, /INFN, Pisa, Christian, Dave, /Fermilab, Conrad, Janet, /Columbia U., Diwan, Milind, /Brookhaven, Dukes, Craig, and /Virginia U. /Fermilab. Sun . "Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book". United States. doi:10.2172/990840. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/990840.
@article{osti_990840,
title = {Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book},
author = {Appel, Jeffrey and /Fermilab and Asner, David and /Carleton U. and Bigi, Ikaros and /Notre Dame U. and Bryman, Douglas and /British Columbia U. and Buras, Andrzej and /Munich, Tech. U. and Carena, Marcela /Fermilab and Carosi, Roberto and /INFN, Pisa and Christian, Dave and /Fermilab and Conrad, Janet and /Columbia U. and Diwan, Milind and /Brookhaven and Dukes, Craig and /Virginia U. /Fermilab},
abstractNote = {Within the next ten years the Standard Model will likely have to be modified to encompass a wide range of newly discovered phenomena, new elementary particles, new symmetries, and new dynamics. These phenomena will be revealed through experiment with high energy particle accelerators, mainly the LHC. This will represent a revolution in our understanding of nature, and will either bring us closer to an understanding of all phenomena, through existing ideas such as supersymmetry to superstrings, or will cause us to scramble to find new ideas and a new sense of direction. We are thus entering a dramatic and important time in the quest to understand the fundamental laws of nature and their role in shaping the universe. The energy scales now probed by the Tevatron, of order hundreds of GeV, will soon be subsumed by the LHC and extended up to a few TeV. We expect the unknown structure of the mysterious symmetry breaking of the Standard Model to be revealed. We will then learn the answer to a question that has a fundamental bearing upon our own existence: 'What is the origin of mass?' All modern theories of 'electroweak symmetry breaking' involve many new particles, mainly to provide a 'naturalness' rationale for the weak scale. Supersymmetry (SUSY) represents extra (fermionic) dimensions of space, leading to a doubling of the number of known elementary particles and ushering in many additional new particles and phenomena associated with the various symmetry breaking sectors. The possibility of additional bosonic dimensions of space would likewise usher in an even greater multitude of new states and new phenomena. Alternatively, any new spectroscopy may indicate new principles we have not yet anticipated, and we may see new strong forces and/or a dynamical origin of mass. The wealth of new particles, parameters, CP-phases, and other phenomena carries important implications for precision quark flavor physics experiments that are uniquely sensitive probes of new phenomena. We have already begun to see the enlargement of the Standard Model in the leptonic sector. Neutrino masses and mixing angles, which in the early 1990's were unknown, must now be incorporated into our full description of nature. In a minimal scenario of Majorana masses and mixings amongst the three known left-handed neutrinos, we see a strong hint of a new and very large mass scale, possibly associated with grand unification or the scale of quantum gravity, the Planck mass. We are not yet sure what the proper description of neutrino masses and mixing angles will be. Experiments may reveal additional unexpected particles coupled to the neutrino sector. New phenomena, such as leptonic CP-violation, will be major focal points of our expanding understanding of the lepton sector. There is much to be done with experiment to attack the issues that neutrinos now present. Already, developments in neutrino physics and the possibility of a novel source of CP-violation in the lepton sector have spawned hopes that the cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry may be explained through leptogenesis. Neutrino physics, together with the search for new energy frontier physics, offers the possibility of experimental handles on the questions of dark matter and dark energy. Without the discovery of new particles in accelerator experiments, the telescope-based cosmological observations of the early universe would remain unexplained puzzles. The process of understanding the laws of physics in greater detail through accelerator-based high energy physics will potentially have incisive impact on our understanding of dark matter and dark energy. Precision flavor physics in both the quark and the lepton sectors offers a window on the sensitive entanglement of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics with rare processes, through quantum loop effects involving known or new states. Flavor physics offers sensitive indirect probes and may be the first place to reveal additional key components of the post-Standard Model physics. The main arenas for quark flavor physics include strange, charm and beauty, hence kaons, D-mesons, B-mesons and heavy baryons. A remarkable historical paradigm for the importance of flavor physics is the well known suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. The analysis of the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference by Gaillard and Lee, 35 years ago in the Fermilab Theory Group, led to the confirmation of the GIM mechanism and predicted the mass of the charm quark, m{sub c} {approx} 1.5 GeV, definitively and prior to its discovery. This, today, implies an astonishing constraint on SUSY models, e.g., that the down and strange squarks are mass degenerate to 1:10{sup 5}. This, in turn, has spawned a new working hypothesis called 'Minimal Flavor Violation' (MFV). But is MFV really a true principle operating in nature and, if so, where does it come from? Such questions can only be addressed in precision flavor physics experiments.},
doi = {10.2172/990840},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {2}
}

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