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Title: The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site

Abstract

The US conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), Plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values rangemore » from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
9739
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JC-130231-Rev-1; HD2006400
HD2006400; TRN: AH200125%%155
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 7th International Conference on Low Level Measurements of Actinides and Long-Lived Radionuclides in Biological and Environmental Samples, Salt Lake City, UT (US), 09/21/1998--09/25/1998; Other Information: PBD: 1 Jan 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; AMERICIUM 241; CARBONATES; CESIUM 137; CONCENTRATION RATIO; MARSHALL ISLANDS; NORTH AMERICA; SOILS; STRONTIUM 90; TEMPERATE ZONES; TRANSPORT

Citation Formats

Conrado, C L, Hamilton, T F, Robison, W L, and Stoker, A C. The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
Conrado, C L, Hamilton, T F, Robison, W L, & Stoker, A C. The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site. United States.
Conrado, C L, Hamilton, T F, Robison, W L, and Stoker, A C. Fri . "The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/9739.
@article{osti_9739,
title = {The effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates for long-lived radionuclides at a U.S. Pacific test site},
author = {Conrado, C L and Hamilton, T F and Robison, W L and Stoker, A C},
abstractNote = {The US conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), Plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values range from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1999},
month = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1999}
}

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