# Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

## Abstract

In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail tomore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Sandia National Laboratories

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE

- OSTI Identifier:
- 970253

- Report Number(s):
- SAND2009-4181

TRN: US201003%%208

- DOE Contract Number:
- AC04-94AL85000

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 14 SOLAR ENERGY; AIR; ALGEBRA; ATTENUATION; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; DAILY VARIATIONS; HEAT TRANSFER; IMPLEMENTATION; ORIENTATION; SIMULATION; SKY; SOLAR FLUX; SOLAR HEATING; SUN; VECTORS; WEATHER; Thermal stresses.; Solar thermal energy.; Heat transfer-Calculations.

### Citation Formats

```
Dobranich, Dean D.
```*Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.*. United States: N. p., 2009.
Web. doi:10.2172/970253.

```
Dobranich, Dean D.
```*Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.*. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/970253

```
Dobranich, Dean D. Wed .
"Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/970253. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/970253.
```

```
@article{osti_970253,
```

title = {Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.},

author = {Dobranich, Dean D},

abstractNote = {In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.},

doi = {10.2172/970253},

url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/970253},
journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2009},

month = {7}

}