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Title: Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

Abstract

The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also notedmore » that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical exposure value is ~1000 times the Earth’s magnetic field, but the Earth’s field is a very low value. Allowable static magnetic field exposure limits have remained constant over the recent past and would appear to remain constant for the foreseeable future. Some existing fusion experiments have suffered from RF energy leakage from waveguides, the typical practice to protect personnel is establishing personnel exclusion areas when systems are operating. RF exposure limits have remained fairly constant for overall body exposures, but have become more specific in the exposure frequency values. This paper describes the occupational limits for those types of exposure, how these exposures are managed, and also discusses the likelihood of more restrictive regulations being promulgated that will affect the design of future fusion power plants and safety of their personnel.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE - SC
OSTI Identifier:
966167
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-09-15949
TRN: US0904038
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC07-99ID-13727
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 9th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety,Vienna, Austria,07/15/2009,07/17/2009
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CLEANING; COOLANTS; DESIGN; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; DOCUMENTATION; IAEA; IONIZING RADIATIONS; LUBRICATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; PERSONNEL; POWER PLANTS; REGULATIONS; SAFETY; WATER; WAVEGUIDES; personnel safety

Citation Formats

Cadwallader, Lee. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants. United States: N. p., 2009. Web.
Cadwallader, Lee. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants. United States.
Cadwallader, Lee. Wed . "Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/966167.
@article{osti_966167,
title = {Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants},
author = {Cadwallader, Lee},
abstractNote = {The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical exposure value is ~1000 times the Earth’s magnetic field, but the Earth’s field is a very low value. Allowable static magnetic field exposure limits have remained constant over the recent past and would appear to remain constant for the foreseeable future. Some existing fusion experiments have suffered from RF energy leakage from waveguides, the typical practice to protect personnel is establishing personnel exclusion areas when systems are operating. RF exposure limits have remained fairly constant for overall body exposures, but have become more specific in the exposure frequency values. This paper describes the occupational limits for those types of exposure, how these exposures are managed, and also discusses the likelihood of more restrictive regulations being promulgated that will affect the design of future fusion power plants and safety of their personnel.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {7}
}

Conference:
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