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Title: Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors

Abstract

Within the LDRD on 'Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors' basic thermodynamics of the Fe-Cr alloy and accurate atomistic modeling were used to help develop the capability to predict hardening, swelling and embrittlement using the paradigm of Multiscale Materials Modeling. Approaches at atomistic and mesoscale levels were linked to build-up the first steps in an integrated modeling platform that seeks to relate in a near-term effort dislocation dynamics to polycrystal plasticity. The requirements originated in the reactor systems under consideration today for future sources of nuclear energy. These requirements are beyond the present day performance of nuclear materials and calls for the development of new, high temperature, radiation resistant materials. Fe-Cr alloys with 9-12% Cr content are the base matrix of advanced ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels envisaged as fuel cladding and structural components of Gen-IV reactors. Predictive tools are needed to calculate structural and mechanical properties of these steels. This project represents a contribution in that direction. The synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials have lead to a significant advance in our comprehension of materials properties and their mechanical behavior. We took this progress to our advantagemore » and within this LDRD were able to provide a detailed physical understanding of iron-chromium alloys microstructural behavior. By combining ab-initio simulations, many-body interatomic potential development, and mesoscale dislocation dynamics we were able to describe their microstructure evolution. For the first time in the case of Fe-Cr alloys, atomistic and mesoscale were merged and the first steps taken towards incorporating ordering and precipitation effects into dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the transport of self-interstitial, vacancy and point defect clusters in concentrated Fe-Cr alloys were performed for future diffusion data calculations. A recently developed parallel MC code with displacement allowed us to predict the evolution of the defect microstructures, local chemistry changes, grain boundary segregation and precipitation resulting from radiation enhanced diffusion. We showed that grain boundaries, dislocations and free surfaces are not preferential for alpha-prime precipitation, and explained experimental observations of short-range order (SRO) in Fe-rich FeCr alloys. Our atomistic studies of dislocation hardening allowed us to obtain dislocation mobility functions for BCC pure iron and Fe-Cr and determine for FCC metals the dislocation interaction with precipitates with a description to be used in Dislocation Dynamic (DD) codes. A Synchronous parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo code was developed and tested which promises to expand the range of applicability of kMC simulations. This LDRD furthered the limits of the available science on the thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic alloys and extended the application of physically-based multiscale materials modeling to cases of severe temperature and neutron fluence conditions in advanced future nuclear reactors. The report is organized as follows: after a brief introduction, we present the research activities, and results obtained. We give recommendations on future LLNL activities that may contribute to the progress in this area, together with examples of possible research lines to be supported.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
950635
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-411069
TRN: US200911%%45
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALLOYS; CHEMISTRY; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; HARDENING; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MICROSTRUCTURE; NEUTRON FLUENCE; NUCLEAR ENERGY; PLASTICITY; POINT DEFECTS; POLYCRYSTALS; PRECIPITATION; REACTORS; STEELS; THERMODYNAMICS

Citation Formats

Caro, M, Marian, J, Martinez, E, and Erhart, P. Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.2172/950635.
Caro, M, Marian, J, Martinez, E, & Erhart, P. Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors. United States. doi:10.2172/950635.
Caro, M, Marian, J, Martinez, E, and Erhart, P. Fri . "Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors". United States. doi:10.2172/950635. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/950635.
@article{osti_950635,
title = {Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors},
author = {Caro, M and Marian, J and Martinez, E and Erhart, P},
abstractNote = {Within the LDRD on 'Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors' basic thermodynamics of the Fe-Cr alloy and accurate atomistic modeling were used to help develop the capability to predict hardening, swelling and embrittlement using the paradigm of Multiscale Materials Modeling. Approaches at atomistic and mesoscale levels were linked to build-up the first steps in an integrated modeling platform that seeks to relate in a near-term effort dislocation dynamics to polycrystal plasticity. The requirements originated in the reactor systems under consideration today for future sources of nuclear energy. These requirements are beyond the present day performance of nuclear materials and calls for the development of new, high temperature, radiation resistant materials. Fe-Cr alloys with 9-12% Cr content are the base matrix of advanced ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels envisaged as fuel cladding and structural components of Gen-IV reactors. Predictive tools are needed to calculate structural and mechanical properties of these steels. This project represents a contribution in that direction. The synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials have lead to a significant advance in our comprehension of materials properties and their mechanical behavior. We took this progress to our advantage and within this LDRD were able to provide a detailed physical understanding of iron-chromium alloys microstructural behavior. By combining ab-initio simulations, many-body interatomic potential development, and mesoscale dislocation dynamics we were able to describe their microstructure evolution. For the first time in the case of Fe-Cr alloys, atomistic and mesoscale were merged and the first steps taken towards incorporating ordering and precipitation effects into dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the transport of self-interstitial, vacancy and point defect clusters in concentrated Fe-Cr alloys were performed for future diffusion data calculations. A recently developed parallel MC code with displacement allowed us to predict the evolution of the defect microstructures, local chemistry changes, grain boundary segregation and precipitation resulting from radiation enhanced diffusion. We showed that grain boundaries, dislocations and free surfaces are not preferential for alpha-prime precipitation, and explained experimental observations of short-range order (SRO) in Fe-rich FeCr alloys. Our atomistic studies of dislocation hardening allowed us to obtain dislocation mobility functions for BCC pure iron and Fe-Cr and determine for FCC metals the dislocation interaction with precipitates with a description to be used in Dislocation Dynamic (DD) codes. A Synchronous parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo code was developed and tested which promises to expand the range of applicability of kMC simulations. This LDRD furthered the limits of the available science on the thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic alloys and extended the application of physically-based multiscale materials modeling to cases of severe temperature and neutron fluence conditions in advanced future nuclear reactors. The report is organized as follows: after a brief introduction, we present the research activities, and results obtained. We give recommendations on future LLNL activities that may contribute to the progress in this area, together with examples of possible research lines to be supported.},
doi = {10.2172/950635},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2009},
month = {Fri Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2009}
}

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