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Title: Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

Abstract

General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249more » ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further reduce mercury emissions. The program was comprised of field and pilot-scale tests, engineering studies and consisted of eight tasks. As part of the program, GE conducted pilot-scale evaluation of sorbent effect on mercury reduction, supplied and installed adjustable riffle boxes to assist in combustion optimization, performed combustion optimization, supplied mobile sorbent injection and flue gas humidification systems, conducted CFD modeling of sorbent injection and flue gas humidification, and performed mercury testing including a continuous 30-day sorbent injection trial. Combustion optimization was the first step in reduction of mercury emissions. Goals of combustion optimization activities were to improve 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and reduce NO{sub x}. Combustion optimization included balancing of coal flow through individual burners to eliminate zones of carbon-rich combustion, air flow balancing, and burner adjustments. As part of the project, the original riffle boxes were replaced with Foster-Wheeler's adjustable riffle boxes to allow for biasing the coal flow between the coal pipes. A 10-point CO/O{sub 2}/NO{sub x} grid was installed in the primary superheater region of the back pass to assist in these activities. Testing of mercury emissions before and after combustion optimization demonstrated that mercury emissions were reduced from 2.9 lb/TBtu to 1.8 lb/TBtu due to boiler operation differences in conjunction with combustion optimization, a 38% improvement in 'native' mercury capture on fly ash. Native mercury reduction from coal was {approx}42% at baseline conditions and 64% at optimized combustion conditions. As a result of combustion optimization NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by 18%. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to study the flow distribution and sorbent injection in the post air heater duct in Lee Station Unit 3. Modeling of the flow pattern exiting the air pre-heater demonstrated that because of the duct transition from a circular opening at the exit of air-pre-heater to a rectangular ESP inlet duct, flow separation occurred at the corners after the transition. Modeling also demonstrated that the flow was severely biased from the South side to the North side due to the bend of the duct. Results of CFD modeling were used to design lances for better sorbent distribution across the ESP inlet duct. Modeling of water injection demonstrated that because of flue gas temperature biasing, the droplet evaporation rate was slower on the North side than that on the South side of the duct. Modeling suggested that an improvement of water droplet evaporation could be achieved by closing the lance on the North side where flue gas temperatures were lower. Preliminary evaluation of the effect of carbon-based sorbents on mercury reduction took place in a 1 MBtu/hr (300 kW) Boiler Simulator Facility using the same coal as fired at Lee Station.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
G E Energy & Environmental Research Corporation
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
950483
DOE Contract Number:  
FC26-05NT42310
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ACTIVATED CARBON; AIR FLOW; AIR HEATERS; BITUMINOUS COAL; BOILERS; BURNERS; CARBON; COAL; COMBUSTION; DUCTS; EVAPORATION; FLUE GAS; FLY ASH; MERCURY; OPTIMIZATION; REMOVAL; SIMULATORS; SUPERHEATERS; TESTING; WATER

Citation Formats

Lissianski, Vitali, and Maly, Pete. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/950483.
Lissianski, Vitali, & Maly, Pete. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station. United States. doi:10.2172/950483.
Lissianski, Vitali, and Maly, Pete. Mon . "Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station". United States. doi:10.2172/950483. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/950483.
@article{osti_950483,
title = {Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station},
author = {Lissianski, Vitali and Maly, Pete},
abstractNote = {General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further reduce mercury emissions. The program was comprised of field and pilot-scale tests, engineering studies and consisted of eight tasks. As part of the program, GE conducted pilot-scale evaluation of sorbent effect on mercury reduction, supplied and installed adjustable riffle boxes to assist in combustion optimization, performed combustion optimization, supplied mobile sorbent injection and flue gas humidification systems, conducted CFD modeling of sorbent injection and flue gas humidification, and performed mercury testing including a continuous 30-day sorbent injection trial. Combustion optimization was the first step in reduction of mercury emissions. Goals of combustion optimization activities were to improve 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and reduce NO{sub x}. Combustion optimization included balancing of coal flow through individual burners to eliminate zones of carbon-rich combustion, air flow balancing, and burner adjustments. As part of the project, the original riffle boxes were replaced with Foster-Wheeler's adjustable riffle boxes to allow for biasing the coal flow between the coal pipes. A 10-point CO/O{sub 2}/NO{sub x} grid was installed in the primary superheater region of the back pass to assist in these activities. Testing of mercury emissions before and after combustion optimization demonstrated that mercury emissions were reduced from 2.9 lb/TBtu to 1.8 lb/TBtu due to boiler operation differences in conjunction with combustion optimization, a 38% improvement in 'native' mercury capture on fly ash. Native mercury reduction from coal was {approx}42% at baseline conditions and 64% at optimized combustion conditions. As a result of combustion optimization NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by 18%. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to study the flow distribution and sorbent injection in the post air heater duct in Lee Station Unit 3. Modeling of the flow pattern exiting the air pre-heater demonstrated that because of the duct transition from a circular opening at the exit of air-pre-heater to a rectangular ESP inlet duct, flow separation occurred at the corners after the transition. Modeling also demonstrated that the flow was severely biased from the South side to the North side due to the bend of the duct. Results of CFD modeling were used to design lances for better sorbent distribution across the ESP inlet duct. Modeling of water injection demonstrated that because of flue gas temperature biasing, the droplet evaporation rate was slower on the North side than that on the South side of the duct. Modeling suggested that an improvement of water droplet evaporation could be achieved by closing the lance on the North side where flue gas temperatures were lower. Preliminary evaluation of the effect of carbon-based sorbents on mercury reduction took place in a 1 MBtu/hr (300 kW) Boiler Simulator Facility using the same coal as fired at Lee Station.},
doi = {10.2172/950483},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {12}
}