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Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING-WING AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS

Abstract

Rotating-wing aircraft or helicopters are heavily used by the US military to transport cargo, troops and personnel, and perform combat missions. Similar helicopter engines (those from the Chinook helicopter, for example) are being used by civilian companies to lift and transport heavy loads. Emissions data for this type of engines are limited but are important for development and design of air quality control strategy for military installations and bases in the country that are surrounded by cities and metropolitan areas. Major gaseous, selected air toxics, and particulate emissions data from helicopters were measured for T700-GE-700 and T700-GE-701C running JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch fuels in separate engine exhaust tests. Each engine-fuel combination test was run at three engine power levels from idle to maximum in sequence in each test in June 2007 at Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF) in Savannah, GA. The emissions from these engines were smaller than those (T33 and T56) tested earlier in terms of gas concentrations and particulate mass/number concentration. The mode diameter of a particle size distribution obtained from a test run throughout the whole campaign was smaller than 100 nm by a research-grade fast scanning mobility particle sizer, which was confirmed by a commercial scanning mobility particlemore » sizer taking sample from a collocated position right at the engine exhaust exit plane. Use of FT fuel led to reduced particulate and gaseous emissions as compared to the use of JP-8 fuel on the same engine. Production of nanoparticles (with mobility diameter smaller than 20 nm) by the engine running on JP-8 fuel was clearly observed using a nano-DMA equipped scanning mobility particle sizer a few meters downstream from the engine exhaust plane. The production was proportional to the engine power setting, and likely to be caused by the sulfur content in the JP-8 fuel. Sulfate/sulfur data measured at the engine exhaust and the same downstream location supports such a hypothesis. Such a production was not observed when FT-fuel was used that further strengthens the hypothesis, since the sulfur content of the FT-fuel was zero. This work was supported by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Defense Program (SERDP) under project number WP 1401.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
946756
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Air and Waste Management Association, Portland, OR, USA, 20080624, 20080627
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AIR QUALITY; AIRCRAFT; CARGO; ELEVATORS; ENGINES; HELICOPTERS; HYPOTHESIS; MASS NUMBER; PARTICLE SIZE; PARTICULATES; PERSONNEL; SULFUR CONTENT; TRANSPORT; URBAN AREAS; US DOD; WASTE MANAGEMENT; Rotating-Wing Aircraft; Particulate Emissions; Particle Transformation

Citation Formats

Cheng, Mengdawn, Corporan, E., Mahurin, Shannon Mark, and DeWitt, M. CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING-WING AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Cheng, Mengdawn, Corporan, E., Mahurin, Shannon Mark, & DeWitt, M. CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING-WING AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS. United States.
Cheng, Mengdawn, Corporan, E., Mahurin, Shannon Mark, and DeWitt, M. Mon . "CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING-WING AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_946756,
title = {CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING-WING AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS},
author = {Cheng, Mengdawn and Corporan, E. and Mahurin, Shannon Mark and DeWitt, M.},
abstractNote = {Rotating-wing aircraft or helicopters are heavily used by the US military to transport cargo, troops and personnel, and perform combat missions. Similar helicopter engines (those from the Chinook helicopter, for example) are being used by civilian companies to lift and transport heavy loads. Emissions data for this type of engines are limited but are important for development and design of air quality control strategy for military installations and bases in the country that are surrounded by cities and metropolitan areas. Major gaseous, selected air toxics, and particulate emissions data from helicopters were measured for T700-GE-700 and T700-GE-701C running JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch fuels in separate engine exhaust tests. Each engine-fuel combination test was run at three engine power levels from idle to maximum in sequence in each test in June 2007 at Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF) in Savannah, GA. The emissions from these engines were smaller than those (T33 and T56) tested earlier in terms of gas concentrations and particulate mass/number concentration. The mode diameter of a particle size distribution obtained from a test run throughout the whole campaign was smaller than 100 nm by a research-grade fast scanning mobility particle sizer, which was confirmed by a commercial scanning mobility particle sizer taking sample from a collocated position right at the engine exhaust exit plane. Use of FT fuel led to reduced particulate and gaseous emissions as compared to the use of JP-8 fuel on the same engine. Production of nanoparticles (with mobility diameter smaller than 20 nm) by the engine running on JP-8 fuel was clearly observed using a nano-DMA equipped scanning mobility particle sizer a few meters downstream from the engine exhaust plane. The production was proportional to the engine power setting, and likely to be caused by the sulfur content in the JP-8 fuel. Sulfate/sulfur data measured at the engine exhaust and the same downstream location supports such a hypothesis. Such a production was not observed when FT-fuel was used that further strengthens the hypothesis, since the sulfur content of the FT-fuel was zero. This work was supported by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Defense Program (SERDP) under project number WP 1401.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

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  • Specimens were machined from lower wing skin extrusions of a transport aircraft, precracked under fatigue loading, repaired with a boron/epoxy patch, and subsequently fatigue tested under simulated flight loading conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of an adhesively bonded repair patch. Testing was performed at RT and -54{degrees}C for two configurations: one with the crack running up the integral stiffener (riser), the other running down the riser towards the outer skin surface. Cracks were initiated from a single 6.35 mm diameter hole located in the riser portion of the 7075-T6 wing skin material. Ultrasonic inspections were performed during fatigue loading tomore » determine crack growth and damage underneath the patch. Limited results show the adhesively bonded patch was successful in stopping or greatly reducing any further crack growth. Under laboratory air conditions, no crack growth occurred following 30,000 equivalent flight hours, double the expected life of the patched structure. Similarly at -54{degrees}C, no crack growth was observed for a patched crack growing up the riser following 15,000 EFH. For the case of a crack growing down the riser at the lower test temperature, some crack growth was measured, though at a greatly reduced rate.« less
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