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Title: Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode

Abstract

The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the timemore » consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent experiments were carried out to determine the transport of the electrons within the diamond and their emission at the surface. In transmission mode measurements, the diamond amplifier was coated with metal on both sides, so results simply depend only on the electron transport within the diamond. The SEY for this mode provides one secondary electron per 20eV energy, which gives the gain of more than 200 for 4.7keV (effective energy) primary electrons under 2MV/m. Laser detrapping can help the signal maintain the gain with lops pulse and duty cycle of 1.67 x 10{sup -7}. In emission mode measurements, in which the diamond is prepared as in the actual application, the SEY is {approx}20 for 700eV (effective energy) primary electrons under 1.21MV/m. The electric field applied and the primary electron energy is limited by the experiment setup, but the results show good trend toward large gain under high field. Thermal emittance of the diamond secondary emission is critical for the beam application. A careful design is setup to measure with very fine precision and accuracy of 0.01eV.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
939994
Report Number(s):
BNL-81607-2008-IR
R&D Project: 18054; KB0202011; TRN: US200823%%749
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; ABLATION; DIAMONDS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRON EMISSION; ELECTRON SOURCES; ELECTRONS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGENATION; MECHANICAL POLISHING; MONOCRYSTALS; PHOTOCATHODES; POLISHING; ROUGHNESS; SECONDARY EMISSION

Citation Formats

Wu, Q. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/939994.
Wu, Q. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/939994
Wu, Q. Wed . "Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/939994. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/939994.
@article{osti_939994,
title = {Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode},
author = {Wu, Q},
abstractNote = {The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent experiments were carried out to determine the transport of the electrons within the diamond and their emission at the surface. In transmission mode measurements, the diamond amplifier was coated with metal on both sides, so results simply depend only on the electron transport within the diamond. The SEY for this mode provides one secondary electron per 20eV energy, which gives the gain of more than 200 for 4.7keV (effective energy) primary electrons under 2MV/m. Laser detrapping can help the signal maintain the gain with lops pulse and duty cycle of 1.67 x 10{sup -7}. In emission mode measurements, in which the diamond is prepared as in the actual application, the SEY is {approx}20 for 700eV (effective energy) primary electrons under 1.21MV/m. The electric field applied and the primary electron energy is limited by the experiment setup, but the results show good trend toward large gain under high field. Thermal emittance of the diamond secondary emission is critical for the beam application. A careful design is setup to measure with very fine precision and accuracy of 0.01eV.},
doi = {10.2172/939994},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/939994}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {10}
}