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Title: Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

Abstract

The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ -1.5 or κ -2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
939431
Report Number(s):
PPPL-4342
TRN: US0806853
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76CHO3073
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CRITICAL TEMPERATURE; ELONGATION; HEAT FLUX; INSTABILITY; MAGNETIC SURFACES; PLASMA; SHAPE; STABILITY; TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS; TRANSPORT; TURBULENCE; Tokamaks

Citation Formats

E. A. Belli, Hammett, G. W., and Dorland, W. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/939431.
E. A. Belli, Hammett, G. W., & Dorland, W. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence. United States. doi:10.2172/939431.
E. A. Belli, Hammett, G. W., and Dorland, W. Fri . "Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence". United States. doi:10.2172/939431. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/939431.
@article{osti_939431,
title = {Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence},
author = {E. A. Belli and Hammett, G. W. and Dorland, W.},
abstractNote = {The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.},
doi = {10.2172/939431},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2008},
month = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2008}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on bothmore » the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of {chi}{approx}{kappa}{sup -1.5} or {kappa}{sup -2.0}, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.« less
  • An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E Χ B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρ i<< ρ θ¡ ~ L E ~ L p << R (here ρ i is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρ θ¡ = B/B θ] ρ i), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge,more » with LE and Lp being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take κ perpendicular to ρ i ~ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes eδφ /Τ i ~ δΒ / Β up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E Χ B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation.« less
  • In simulations of turbulent plasma transport due to long wavelength, (k⊥pi ≤ 1), electrostatic drift-type instabilities we find that a nonlinear upshift of the effective threshold persists. This `Dimits shift' represents the difference between the linear threshold, at the onset of instability, and the nonlinear threshold, where transport increases suddenly as the driving temperature gradient is increased. As the drive increases, the magnitudes of turbulent eddies and zonal ows grow until the zonal flows become nonlinearly unstable to 'tertiary' modes and their sheared ows no longer grow fast enough to strongly limit eddy size. The tertiary mode threshold sets themore » effective nonlinear threshold for the heat transport, and the Dimits shift arises when this occurs at a zonal flow magnitude greater than that needed to limit transport near the linear threshold. Nextgeneration tokamaks will likely benefit from the higher effective threshold for turbulent transport, and transport models should incorporate suitable corrections to linear thresholds. These gyrokinetic simulations are more realistic than previous reports of a Dimits shift because they include nonadiabatic electron dynamics, strong collisional damping of zonal flows, and finite electron and ion collisionality together with realistic shaped magnetic geometry. Reversing previously reported results based on idealized adiabatic electrons, we find that increasing collisionality reduces the heat flux because collisionality reduces the nonadiabatic electron drive.« less
  • A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects.more » In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency.« less
  • Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with kinetic electron dynamics are used to study the effects of plasma shaping on turbulent transport and ExB shear in toroidal geometry including the presence of kinetic electrons using the GYRO code. Over 120 simulations comprised of systematic scans were performed around several reference cases in the local, electrostatic, collisionless limit. Using a parameterized local equilibrium model for shaped geometry, the GYRO simulations show that elongation {kappa} (and its gradient) stabilizes the energy transport from ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron mode (TEM) instabilities at fixed midplane minor radius. For scans around a reference set ofmore » parameters, the GYRO ion energy diffusivity, in gyro-Bohm units, approximately follows a {kappa}{sup -1} scaling which is qualitatively similar to recent experimental energy confinement scalings. Most of the {kappa} scaling is due to the shear in the elongation rather than the local {kappa} itself. The {kappa} scaling for the electrons is found to vary and can be stronger or weaker than {kappa}{sup -1} depending on the wavenumber where the transport peaks. The {kappa} scaling is weaker when the energy diffusivity peaks at low wavenumbers and is stronger when the peak occurs at high wavenumbers. The simulations also demonstrate a nonlinear upshift in the critical temperature gradient as the elongation increases due to an increase in the residual zonal flow amplitude. Triangularity is found to be slightly destabilizing and its effect is strongest for highly elongated plasmas. Finally, we find less ExB shear is needed to quench the transport at high elongation and low aspect ratio. A new linear ExB shear quench rule, valid for shaped tokamak geometry, is presented.« less