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Title: Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1

Abstract

The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-F{sub B1}). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-O{sub B1}), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene. Results: In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-O{sub B1} in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-F{sub B1} has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differencesmore » in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion: This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron-sulfur cluster. Because this ferredoxin is used by multiple oxygenases present in the B1 organism, this ferredoxin-oxygenase system provides the structural platform to dissect the balance between promiscuity and selectivity in protein-protein electron transport systems.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930655
Report Number(s):
BNL-81128-2008-JA
TRN: US200901%%166
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: BMC Structural Biology; Journal Volume: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMINO ACIDS; BINDING ENERGY; BIPHENYL; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; FERREDOXIN; NAPHTHALENE; OXYGENASES; SUBSTRATES; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Ferraro,D., Brown, E., Yu, C., Parales, R., Gibson, D., and Ramaswamy, S. Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-10.
Ferraro,D., Brown, E., Yu, C., Parales, R., Gibson, D., & Ramaswamy, S. Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1. United States. doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-10.
Ferraro,D., Brown, E., Yu, C., Parales, R., Gibson, D., and Ramaswamy, S. Mon . "Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1". United States. doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-10.
@article{osti_930655,
title = {Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1},
author = {Ferraro,D. and Brown, E. and Yu, C. and Parales, R. and Gibson, D. and Ramaswamy, S.},
abstractNote = {The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-F{sub B1}). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-O{sub B1}), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene. Results: In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-O{sub B1} in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-F{sub B1} has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion: This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron-sulfur cluster. Because this ferredoxin is used by multiple oxygenases present in the B1 organism, this ferredoxin-oxygenase system provides the structural platform to dissect the balance between promiscuity and selectivity in protein-protein electron transport systems.},
doi = {10.1186/1472-6807-7-10},
journal = {BMC Structural Biology},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A crystal was obtained of the complex between reduced terminal oxygenase and oxidized ferredoxin components of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase. The crystal belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution. The initial reaction in bacterial carbazole degradation is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of terminal oxygenase (Oxy), ferredoxin (Fd) and ferredoxin reductase components. The electron-transfer complex between reduced Oxy and oxidized Fd was crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.25 Å and belonged to space group P2{submore » 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.3, b = 81.6, c = 116.2 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 100.1°. The V{sub M} value is 2.85 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, indicating a solvent content of 56.8%.« less
  • The electron-transfer complex between the terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.90 Å resolution. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. The electron-transport complex between CARDO-O and CARDO-F crystallizes at 293 K using hanging-drop vapour diffusion with the precipitant PEG MME 2000 (type I crystals) or PEG 3350 (type II). Blossom-shaped crystals form from a pile of triangular plate-shaped crystals. The type I crystal diffracts to a maximum resolutionmore » of 1.90 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.1, b = 89.8, c = 104.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. Diffraction data for the type I crystal gave an overall R{sub merge} of 8.0% and a completeness of 100%. Its V{sub M} value is 2.63 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, indicating a solvent content of 53.2%.« less
  • BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement calculation yielded a satisfactory solution. BphA3, a Rieske-type [2Fe–2S] ferredoxin component of a biphenyl dioxygenase (BphA) from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms were obtained from the same conditions. The form I crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 144.3, c = 61.5 Å, and diffracted to 2.45 Å resolution. The form II crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.2, bmore » = 121.3, c = 142.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement calculation using BphF as a search model yielded a satisfactory solution for both forms.« less
  • 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase, involved in biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl degradation, was purified from cell extracts of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Pseudomonas aeruginas PAO1161 carrying the cloned bphC gene (encoding 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase). The purified enzyme contained ferrous iron as a prosthetic group. The specific activities decreased with the loss of ferrous iron from the enzyme, and the activity was restored by incubation with ferrous iron in the presence of cysteine. Addition of ferric iron caused the complete inactivation of the enzyme. The molecular weight was estimated to be 250,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band with amore » molecular weight of 31,000, indicating that the enzyme consists of eight identical subunits. The enzyme was specific only for 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl with a K/sub m/ value of 87 ..mu..M. No significant activity was observed for 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, catechol, or 3-methyl- and 4-methylcatechol. The molecular weight, subunit structure, ferrous iron requirement, and NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence (starting with serine up to 12 residues) were the same between the two enzymes obtained from KF707 and PAO1161 (bphC).« less