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Title: Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts

Abstract

In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIPmore » without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; Office of Chemical Biological Countermeasures.Science and Technology Directorate. Department of HomelandSecurity
OSTI Identifier:
928232
Report Number(s):
LBNL-62107
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6981; ATENBP; R&D Project: E54403; BnR: 400904010; TRN: US200815%%794
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Environment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 33; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 10/2007; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6981
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59; AIR; AIR INFILTRATION; CONTAMINATION; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; IMPLEMENTATION; INDOORS; PUBLIC HEALTH; SHAPE; SHELTERS; SORPTION; VENTILATION

Citation Formats

Chan, W R, Nazaroff, W W, Price, P N, and Gadgil, A J. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Chan, W R, Nazaroff, W W, Price, P N, & Gadgil, A J. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts. United States.
Chan, W R, Nazaroff, W W, Price, P N, and Gadgil, A J. 2006. "Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/928232.
@article{osti_928232,
title = {Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts},
author = {Chan, W R and Nazaroff, W W and Price, P N and Gadgil, A J},
abstractNote = {In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/928232}, journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
issn = {0004-6981},
number = 33,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {12}
}