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Title: DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503

Abstract

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is about to process High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). This sludge batch is high in alumina and nepheline can crystallize readily depending on the glass composition. Large concentrations of crystallized nepheline can have an adverse effect on HLW glass durability. Several studies have been performed to study the potential for nepheline formation in SB4. The Phase 3 Nepheline Formation study of SB4 glasses examined sixteen different glasses made with four different frits. Melt rate experiments were performed by the Process Science and Engineering Section (PS&E) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the four frits from the Phase 3 work, plus additional high B2O3/high Fe2O3 frits. Preliminary results from these tests showed the potential for significant improvements in melt rate for SB4 glasses using a higher B2O3-containing frit, particularly Frit 503. The main objective of this study was to investigate the durability of SB4 glasses produced with a high B2O3 frit likely to be recommended for SB4 processing. In addition, a range of waste loadings (WLs) was selected to continue to assess the effectiveness of a nepheline discriminator in predicting concentrations of nepheline crystallization that would be sufficient to influencemore » the durability response of the glass. Five glasses were selected for this study, covering a WL range of 30 to 50 wt% in 5 wt% increments. The Frit 503 glasses were batched and melted. Specimens of each glass were heat-treated to simulate cooling along the centerline of a DWPF-type canister (ccc) to gauge the effects of thermal history on product performance. Visual observations on both quenched and ccc glasses were documented. A representative sample from each glass was submitted to the SRNL Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) for chemical analysis to confirm that the as-fabricated glasses corresponded to the defined target compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT, ASTM C1285) was performed in triplicate on each Frit 503 quenched and ccc glass to assess chemical durability. The experimental test matrix also included the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass and the Approved Reference Material (ARM-1) glass. Representative samples of all the ccc glasses were examined for homogeneity visually and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Chemical composition measurements indicated that the experimental glasses were close to their target compositions. PCT results showed that all of the Fit 503 quenched glasses had an acceptable durability compared to the EA benchmark glass. The durability of one of the ccc glasses, NEPHB-04, was statistically greater than its quenched counterpart. However, this was shown to be of little practical significance, as the durability of the NEPHB-04 ccc glass was acceptable when compared to the durability of the EA benchmark glass. Visual observations and PCT results indicated that all of the Frit 503 quenched glasses were free of any crystallization that impacts durability. For the ccc glasses, XRD results indicated that the lower WL glasses (30 to 40 wt%) were amorphous, which was consistent with visual observations and PCT responses. The higher WL glasses (45 and 50 wt%) were shown by XRD to contain spinel (trevorite, NiFe2O4). It is possible that some of the other high WL glasses also contained some nepheline, but that the amount of nepheline crystallization was below the detection limit (0.5 vol%) associated with XRD. The results indicate that Frit 503 is a good candidate for SB4 processing, based on chemical durability of homogeneous and devitrified glasses over a WL range of 30 - 50%. It should be noted that the higher WL glasses would not be fit for processing in DWPF as they exceed other process related criteria (such as liquidus temperature). However, this is only one of many factors influencing the frit selection. Melt rate and the final SB4 composition are also important factors in frit selection. Additional melt rate studies are currently underway, and the final composition projection for SB4 is expected shortly.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
918132
Report Number(s):
WSRC-STI-2006-00009
TRN: US0805345
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC09-96SR18500
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; WASTE FORMS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CRYSTALLIZATION; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; SLUDGES; CORROSION RESISTANCE; PHASE STUDIES; GLASS

Citation Formats

Fox, K, Tommy Edwards, T, David Peeler, D, David Best, D, Irene Reamer, I, and Phyllis Workman, P. DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/918132.
Fox, K, Tommy Edwards, T, David Peeler, D, David Best, D, Irene Reamer, I, & Phyllis Workman, P. DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/918132
Fox, K, Tommy Edwards, T, David Peeler, D, David Best, D, Irene Reamer, I, and Phyllis Workman, P. 2006. "DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/918132. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/918132.
@article{osti_918132,
title = {DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503},
author = {Fox, K and Tommy Edwards, T and David Peeler, D and David Best, D and Irene Reamer, I and Phyllis Workman, P},
abstractNote = {The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is about to process High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). This sludge batch is high in alumina and nepheline can crystallize readily depending on the glass composition. Large concentrations of crystallized nepheline can have an adverse effect on HLW glass durability. Several studies have been performed to study the potential for nepheline formation in SB4. The Phase 3 Nepheline Formation study of SB4 glasses examined sixteen different glasses made with four different frits. Melt rate experiments were performed by the Process Science and Engineering Section (PS&E) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the four frits from the Phase 3 work, plus additional high B2O3/high Fe2O3 frits. Preliminary results from these tests showed the potential for significant improvements in melt rate for SB4 glasses using a higher B2O3-containing frit, particularly Frit 503. The main objective of this study was to investigate the durability of SB4 glasses produced with a high B2O3 frit likely to be recommended for SB4 processing. In addition, a range of waste loadings (WLs) was selected to continue to assess the effectiveness of a nepheline discriminator in predicting concentrations of nepheline crystallization that would be sufficient to influence the durability response of the glass. Five glasses were selected for this study, covering a WL range of 30 to 50 wt% in 5 wt% increments. The Frit 503 glasses were batched and melted. Specimens of each glass were heat-treated to simulate cooling along the centerline of a DWPF-type canister (ccc) to gauge the effects of thermal history on product performance. Visual observations on both quenched and ccc glasses were documented. A representative sample from each glass was submitted to the SRNL Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) for chemical analysis to confirm that the as-fabricated glasses corresponded to the defined target compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT, ASTM C1285) was performed in triplicate on each Frit 503 quenched and ccc glass to assess chemical durability. The experimental test matrix also included the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass and the Approved Reference Material (ARM-1) glass. Representative samples of all the ccc glasses were examined for homogeneity visually and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Chemical composition measurements indicated that the experimental glasses were close to their target compositions. PCT results showed that all of the Fit 503 quenched glasses had an acceptable durability compared to the EA benchmark glass. The durability of one of the ccc glasses, NEPHB-04, was statistically greater than its quenched counterpart. However, this was shown to be of little practical significance, as the durability of the NEPHB-04 ccc glass was acceptable when compared to the durability of the EA benchmark glass. Visual observations and PCT results indicated that all of the Frit 503 quenched glasses were free of any crystallization that impacts durability. For the ccc glasses, XRD results indicated that the lower WL glasses (30 to 40 wt%) were amorphous, which was consistent with visual observations and PCT responses. The higher WL glasses (45 and 50 wt%) were shown by XRD to contain spinel (trevorite, NiFe2O4). It is possible that some of the other high WL glasses also contained some nepheline, but that the amount of nepheline crystallization was below the detection limit (0.5 vol%) associated with XRD. The results indicate that Frit 503 is a good candidate for SB4 processing, based on chemical durability of homogeneous and devitrified glasses over a WL range of 30 - 50%. It should be noted that the higher WL glasses would not be fit for processing in DWPF as they exceed other process related criteria (such as liquidus temperature). However, this is only one of many factors influencing the frit selection. Melt rate and the final SB4 composition are also important factors in frit selection. Additional melt rate studies are currently underway, and the final composition projection for SB4 is expected shortly.},
doi = {10.2172/918132},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/918132}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {6}
}