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Title: Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

Abstract

Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Limingmore » also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
914210
Report Number(s):
BNL-78778-2007-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0047-2425; JEVQAA; TRN: US0801603
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Environ. Qual.; Journal Volume: 35
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ABSORPTION; FOWL; LIMING; LOAM; MANURES; MOISTURE; PATHOGENS; PHOSPHORUS; PLATES; RUNOFF; SAND; SILT; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; WASTES; NSLS; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Maguire,R., Hesterberg, D., Gernat, A., Anderson, K., Wineland, M., and Grimes, J.. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0339.
Maguire,R., Hesterberg, D., Gernat, A., Anderson, K., Wineland, M., & Grimes, J.. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus. United States. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0339.
Maguire,R., Hesterberg, D., Gernat, A., Anderson, K., Wineland, M., and Grimes, J.. Sun . "Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus". United States. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0339.
@article{osti_914210,
title = {Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus},
author = {Maguire,R. and Hesterberg, D. and Gernat, A. and Anderson, K. and Wineland, M. and Grimes, J.},
abstractNote = {Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.},
doi = {10.2134/jeq2005.0339},
journal = {J. Environ. Qual.},
number = ,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) which plays an important role in soil ecosystem processes. WSOM was extracted from plant biomass, animal manures, and soils from controlled cropping systems studies with known histories of organic amendments. Lifetime constants were derived using the multi-way PowerSlicing method which provides a non-iterative, multi-exponential fitting of decay profiles. The lifetimes obtained by PowerSlicing were not significantly different from those obtained using the traditional discrete components analysis. The three components attributed to WSOM had lifetimes of 0.38± 0.14, 2.11±0.72, and 7.08±1.18 ns which are in agreement with previous lifetimes reportedmore » for humic substances. This study provides further support for the new paradigm for the structure of soil organic matter where the organic matter is composed of low-molecular-weight components held together by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions.« less
  • Several factors have been identified that may affect the responses of foodborne pathogens to ionizing radiation. Among these are the temperature and atmosphere during the process of irradiation; the medium in which the pathogen is suspended; and the genus, species, serovar, and physiological state of the organism. In addition to these factors, variations in {open_quotes}apparent{close_quotes} radiation sensitivity of bacteria may occur because of the incubation conditions and media used to estimate the number of surviving colony-forming units. Both incubation temperature and culture media frequently affect the ability of injured bacteria to recover. Because there are so many possible variables, itmore » is often difficult to compare data on the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens from different studies. The objectives of the studies reported here were to compare the radiation sensitivities of Bacillus cereus on beef, beef gravy, chicken, pork, and turkey; and of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus on beef, pork, lamb, turkey breast, and turkey leg meats. Examples of the effects of serovar, irradiation temperature, growth phase, and atmosphere during irradiation were also examined.« less
  • Ozone was evaluated as an alternative hatchery disinfectant to replace formaldehyde in the event that the Environmental Protection Agency regulates the use of formaldehyde under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Cultures of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus species previously isolated from poultry hatcheries and selected culture collections of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescences, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus species, and Aspergillus fumigatus were spread-plated on open petri plates and independently fumigated with ozone or formaldehyde in a prototype laboratory poultry setter. Ozone (1.52% to 1.65% by weight) resulted in bacterial reductions of greater than 4 to 7 log10 and fungal reductions of greater thanmore » 4 log10, whereas formaldehyde achieved reductions of greater than 7 log10 and greater than 5 log10, respectively, after 8 min of exposure to either disinfectant. Potential mutagenic effects were observed in ozonated E. coli colonies resulting in decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased catalase activity when compared with nonozonated control colonies. In this study ozone reduced microorganism counts but not as much as formaldehyde. Ozone may be used as a disinfectant against selected microorganisms, although further testing under actual hatchery conditions is needed before making recommendations to the industry.« less
  • Received for publication March 10, 2006. Identification of the chemical P species in biosolids or manures will improve our understanding of the long-term potential for P loss when these materials are land applied. The objectives of this study were to determine the P species in dairy manures, poultry litters, and biosolids using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and to determine if chemical fractionation techniques can provide useful information when interpreted based on the results of more definitive P speciation studies. Our XANES fitting results indicated that the predominant forms of P in organic P sources included hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4}more » sorbed to Al hydroxides, and phytic acid in lime-stabilized biosolids and manures; hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, and phytic acid in lime- and Fe-treated biosolids; and PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, hydroxylapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), and often PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides in Fe-treated and digested biosolids. Strong relationships existed between the proportions of XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides and NH{sub 4}Cl- + NH{sub 4}F-extractable P, XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to ferrihydrite + phytic acid and NaOH-extractable P, and XANES hydroxylapatite + {beta}-TCP and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)- + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable P ({gamma}{sup 2} = 0.67 [P = 0.01], 0.78 [P = 0.01], and 0.89 [P = 0.001], respectively). Our XANES fitting results can be used to make predictions about long-term solubility of P when biosolids and manures are land applied. Fractionation techniques indicate that there are differences in the forms of P in these materials but should be interpreted based on P speciation data obtained using more advanced analytical tools.« less
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