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Title: Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

Abstract

The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
90881
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: 30 Mar 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; THYROID; RADIOTHERAPY; DELAYED RADIATION EFFECTS; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; HYPOTHYROIDISM; NECK; RADIATION DOSES; THYROIDITIS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS

Citation Formats

Hancock, S.L., McDougall, I.R., and Constine, L.S. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1016/0360-3016(95)00019-U.
Hancock, S.L., McDougall, I.R., & Constine, L.S. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. United States. doi:10.1016/0360-3016(95)00019-U.
Hancock, S.L., McDougall, I.R., and Constine, L.S. Thu . "Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation". United States. doi:10.1016/0360-3016(95)00019-U.
@article{osti_90881,
title = {Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation},
author = {Hancock, S.L. and McDougall, I.R. and Constine, L.S.},
abstractNote = {The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.},
doi = {10.1016/0360-3016(95)00019-U},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 30 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Thu Mar 30 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}