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Title: A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe

Abstract

A tool holder was designed to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-{micro}m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. A four-axis lathe incorporates a rotary table that allows the cutting tool to swivel with respect to the workpiece to enable the machining of complex workpiece forms, and accurately machining complex meso-scale parts often requires that the cutting tool be aligned precisely along the axis of rotation of the rotary table. The tool holder designed in this study has greatly simplified the process of setting the tool in the correct location with sub-{micro}m precision. The tool holder adjusts the tool position using flexures that were designed using finite element analyses. Two flexures adjust the lateral position of the tool to align the center of the nose of the tool with the axis of rotation of the B-axis, and another flexure adjusts the height of the tool. The flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters, each of which provides a minimum increment of motion of 20 nm. This tool holder has simplified the process of setting a tool with sub-{micro}m accuracy, and it has significantly reduced the time required to set a tool.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
902341
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-218104
TRN: US200717%%263
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Precision Engineering, vol. 31, no. 2, April 1, 2007, pp. 169-176; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; ACCURACY; CUTTING TOOLS; LATHES; MACHINING; POSITIONING; ROTATION

Citation Formats

Bono, M J, and Hibbard, R L. A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe. United States: N. p., 2005. Web.
Bono, M J, & Hibbard, R L. A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe. United States.
Bono, M J, and Hibbard, R L. Mon . "A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/902341.
@article{osti_902341,
title = {A Flexure-Based Tool Holder for Sub-(micro)m Positioning of a Single Point Cutting Tool on a Four-axis Lathe},
author = {Bono, M J and Hibbard, R L},
abstractNote = {A tool holder was designed to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-{micro}m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. A four-axis lathe incorporates a rotary table that allows the cutting tool to swivel with respect to the workpiece to enable the machining of complex workpiece forms, and accurately machining complex meso-scale parts often requires that the cutting tool be aligned precisely along the axis of rotation of the rotary table. The tool holder designed in this study has greatly simplified the process of setting the tool in the correct location with sub-{micro}m precision. The tool holder adjusts the tool position using flexures that were designed using finite element analyses. Two flexures adjust the lateral position of the tool to align the center of the nose of the tool with the axis of rotation of the B-axis, and another flexure adjusts the height of the tool. The flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters, each of which provides a minimum increment of motion of 20 nm. This tool holder has simplified the process of setting a tool with sub-{micro}m accuracy, and it has significantly reduced the time required to set a tool.},
doi = {},
journal = {Precision Engineering, vol. 31, no. 2, April 1, 2007, pp. 169-176},
number = 2,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Dec 05 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Mon Dec 05 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjustingmore » the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.« less
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  • Purpose: Evaluate the ability of different dosimeters to correctly measure the dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), and off-axis ratio (OAR) in water for small fields. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to estimate the variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for several types of microdetectors as a function of depth and distance from the central axis for PDD, TMR, and OAR measurements. The variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}more » enables one to evaluate the ability of a detector to reproduce the PDD, TMR, and OAR in water and consequently determine whether it is necessary to apply correction factors. The correctness of the simulations was verified by assessing the ratios between the PDDs and OARs of 5- and 25-mm circular collimators used with a linear accelerator measured with two different types of dosimeters (the PTW 60012 diode and PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber) and the PDDs and the OARs measured with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector (PSD) and comparing those ratios with the corresponding ratios predicted by the MC simulations. Results: MC simulations reproduced results with acceptable accuracy compared to the experimental results; therefore, MC simulations can be used to successfully predict the behavior of different dosimeters in small fields. The Exradin W1 PSD was the only dosimeter that reproduced the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with high accuracy. With the exception of the EDGE diode, the stereotactic diodes reproduced the PDDs and the TMRs in water with a systematic error of less than 2% at depths of up to 25 cm; however, they produced OAR values that were significantly different from those in water, especially in the tail region (lower than 20% in some cases). The microchambers could be used for PDD measurements for fields greater than those produced using a 10-mm collimator. However, with the detector stem parallel to the beam axis, the microchambers could be used for TMR measurements for all field sizes. The microchambers could not be used for OAR measurements for small fields. Conclusions: Compared with MC simulation, the Exradin W1 PSD can reproduce the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with a high degree of accuracy; thus, the correction used for converting dose is very close to unity. The stereotactic diode is a viable alternative because it shows an acceptable systematic error in the measurement of PDDs and TMRs and a significant underestimation in only the tail region of the OAR measurements, where the dose is low and differences in dose may not be therapeutically meaningful.« less