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Title: Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

Abstract

Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This objective is to be achieved by a laboratory development of the sensor and instrumentation, testing of the measurement system in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. The initial plan formore » testing at the coal-fired pilot-scale furnace was replaced by testing in a power plant, because the operation condition at the power plant is continuous and more stable. The first two-year effort was completed with the successful development sensor and measurement system, and successful testing in a muffle furnace. Because of the potential high cost in sensor fabrication, a different type of sensor was used and tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. This report summarize the experiences and results of the first two years of the three-year project, which include laboratory development and testing, and experiences and results of power plant testing.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Alabama
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
882673
DOE Contract Number:
FG26-03NT41807
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; BITUMINOUS COAL; BOILERS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION; CORROSION; EFFICIENCY; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; EXPLOSIONS; FABRICATION; FLEXIBILITY; FURNACES; MONITORING; POWER PLANTS; POWER SYSTEMS; PROGRESS REPORT; TESTING

Citation Formats

Heng Ban. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/882673.
Heng Ban. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems. United States. doi:10.2172/882673.
Heng Ban. Thu . "Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems". United States. doi:10.2172/882673. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/882673.
@article{osti_882673,
title = {Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems},
author = {Heng Ban},
abstractNote = {Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This objective is to be achieved by a laboratory development of the sensor and instrumentation, testing of the measurement system in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. The initial plan for testing at the coal-fired pilot-scale furnace was replaced by testing in a power plant, because the operation condition at the power plant is continuous and more stable. The first two-year effort was completed with the successful development sensor and measurement system, and successful testing in a muffle furnace. Because of the potential high cost in sensor fabrication, a different type of sensor was used and tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. This report summarize the experiences and results of the first two years of the three-year project, which include laboratory development and testing, and experiences and results of power plant testing.},
doi = {10.2172/882673},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damagemore » can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this proposed project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This report describes the initial results from the first-year effort of the three-year study that include laboratory development and experiment, and pilot combustor testing.« less
  • Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indicationmore » of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.« less
  • ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport ofmore » hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.« less
  • The greatest challenge to achieve no environmental impact or zero emissions for the Vision 21 plants is probably greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2} emissions that are inevitably associated with fossil fuel combustion. Mineral carbonation, that involves the reaction of CO{sub 2} with non-carbonate minerals to form stable mineral carbonates, has been lately proposed as a promising CO{sub 2} sequestration technology due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the long term stability of the mineral carbonates formed, and the overall process being exothermic, and therefore, potentially economic viable. However, carbonation efficiency is being considered a major hurdle formore » the development of economically viable sequestration technologies, where present studies require extensive mineral particle communition, high pressures and prior capture of the CO{sub 2}. Consequently, mineral carbonation will only become a viable cost-effective sequestration technology through innovative development of fast reaction routes under milder regimes in a continuous process. The objective of the proposed novel active carbonation concept is to promote and accelerate reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that extensive mineral particle communition and high temperatures and pressures are not required. In this research program, serpentine was used as the carbonation feedstock material. Physical and chemical surface activation studies were conducted to promote its inherent carbonation reactivity. The activated materials were characterized by a battery of analytical techniques to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. Active carbonation studies were conducted and the carbonation activity was quantitatively determined by the increase of the weight of solid products and the percent of stoichiometric conversion. This work has shown that chemical activation was more effective than the physical activation in terms of increasing the surface area (330 vs. 17m{sup 2}/g). The steam activated serpentine had a 73% conversion to magnesite at 155 C and 1850 psig after 1 hour reaction, while under the same operating conditions, the parent sample only had 8% conversion. However, heat treatment is very energy intensive, and therefore, this steam activation route was not further considered. For the chemical activation, the most effective acid used was sulfuric acid, that resulted in surface areas of over 330 m{sup 2}/g, and more than 70% of the magnesium was dissolved from the serpentine (100{micro}m), and therefore, made available for carbonation. As a consequence, the subsequent carbonation reaction could be conducted at ambient temperatures (20 C) and low pressures (600psi) and it was possible to achieve 73% conversion after only 3 hours. This is indeed a significant improvement over previous studies that required temperatures over 185 C and very high pressures of around 1950 psig. Finally, this project has been awarded a Phase II, where the active carbonation process developed during this Phase I will be optimized in order to design a CO{sub 2} sequestration module.« less
  • ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport ofmore » hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.« less