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Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

Abstract

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamicmore » properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Magnetic Development Inc.
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
850491
Report Number(s):
Final Technical Report
TRN: US200707%%266
DOE Contract Number:
FG36-04GO14327
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE; COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS; COMPRESSION; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; EQUATIONS OF STATE; FLOW RATE; GREENHOUSE GASES; HEAT PUMPS; POTENTIAL ENERGY; REFRIGERATION; THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES; TWO-PHASE FLOW; VELOCITY; WORKING FLUIDS; Heat Pumps, Refrigeration, Two-Phase Flow

Citation Formats

Mark J. Bergander. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/850491.
Mark J. Bergander. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration. United States. doi:10.2172/850491.
Mark J. Bergander. 2005. "New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration". United States. doi:10.2172/850491. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/850491.
@article{osti_850491,
title = {New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration},
author = {Mark J. Bergander},
abstractNote = {The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.},
doi = {10.2172/850491},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2005,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • This project was a continuation of Category 1 project, completed in August 2005. Following the successful bench model demonstration of the technical feasibility and economic viability, the main objective in this stage was to fabricate the prototype of the heat pump, working on the new thermodynamic cycle. This required further research to increase the system efficiency to the level consistent with theoretical analysis of the cycle. Another group of objectives was to provide the foundation for commercialization and included documentation of the manufacturing process, preparing the business plan, organizing sales network and raising the private capital necessary to acquire productionmore » facilities.« less
  • A new absorption cycle, using heat as the energy source, was proposed to produce refrigeration. This proposed cycle, referred to as the single-effect regenerative absorption cycle or cycle 1R, has a performance much superior to the well-known basic absorption cycle, namely: the coefficient of performance (COP) is higher at higher input temperatures and the ''cut-off'' input temperature is very much lower. The cycle 1R operates with a multistage boiler and a multistage absorber in such a way that each stage of the heat input and heat rejection processes of the cycle occurs essentially at constant temperature rather than at constantmore » pressure. The greatest part of the high pressure refrigerant vapor subsequently condensed is generated in an adiabatic multi-section regenerator rather than in the boiler (or the generator). The greatest part of the heat necessary to generate the high pressure refrigerant vapor comes from the absorption of the evaporator vapor by the very weak solution leaving the boiler. This absorption process occurs in the regenerator. Because the regenerator is adiabatic, the cycle receives and rejects heat at essentially constant temperatures. Therefore, the COP of the cycle approaches the Carnot COP.« less
  • An advanced absorption refrigeration cycle was proposed as a heat-activated refrigeration system. Referred to as the double-effect regenerative absorption cycle of cycle 2R, it improves the performance of the conventional single-effect absorption cycle at high heat source temperatures. The performance of cycle 2R continually improves as input temperatures rise, in contrast to the conventional double-effect absorption cycle that has a sharp cut-off temperature below which it ceases to operate. Cycle 2R operates with two subcycles, the first-effect and the second-effect subcycles.
  • Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.
  • REGRIG-12 is an interactive program that serves as a tool for designing and analyzing thermodynamic vapor-compression refrigeration/heatpump cycles. The software, intended for use in the CP/M environment, is formulated so that graphic and alphanumeric responses to design decisions are displayed simultaneously on separate monitors. REFRIG-12 may be modified easily to run on systems that do not have a graphics capability by simply deleting the graphics functions from the source programs. Temperature-Entropy property coordinates are used to describe the thermodynamic processes Freon-12 undergoes as it passes through the various mechanical components which ultimately produce the cycle. The processes are displayed graphicallymore » as the user makes the decisions to design a refrigeration cycle. System prompts and software interlocks are designed into REFRIG-12 so the user can proceed comfortably and easily through the operations that lead to a cycle design. When a design has been completed, REFRIG-12 offers the user an opportunity to make changes to it. The effects of design changes become graphically discernible through successive overlays on the graphics monitor. DOTPLOT can be executed to produce a hard copy of the graphics monitor display. Summaries of the cycle performance, pertinent energy transfers, and other engineering consequences of the design specifications can also be presented - at user option - on both the CRT and the printer. REFRIG-12 is organized so that a relatively small main program controls 35 subroutines. Each subroutine has stand-alone characteristics and may be used with programs having other primary purposes. The subroutines can be conveniently merged (or chained) into system memory as needed.« less