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Title: The Roles of Advection and In Situ Growth in Determining the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Zooplankton: High Frequency Measurements of Zooplankton Biomass Coupled with Measurements of Secondary Productivity in the Middle Atlantic Bight

Abstract

Evaluation of the role of continental margins in planetary carbon cycles can be approached in various ways, with the extremes being knowledge generated either by large-scale studies of a few basic characteristics of the carbon cycle of shelves worldwide (comparative approach) or by temporally intensive studies of a few sites selected to typify contrasting processes. Mechanisms of cross-shelf transfer, for example, are presently of great interest and within the US there are at least four differing continental shelf environments in which cross-shelf processes are driven by storms (southern Bering Sea, northeastern US), by jets and eddies (northern California coast), by freshwater runoff (Bering Sea, Gulf of Mexico), and by frontal meanders and filaments of the Gulf Stream (southeastern US). Because the type and magnitude of the physical forcing, and its variability on an annual scale, are fundamental to the response of the carbon cycle, investigation of each of these shelves would offer insight useful to predictive global understanding of the carbon cycle on continental shelves.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Miami, FL (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Research (ER) (US)
OSTI Identifier:
8178
DOE Contract Number:
FG05-94ER61829
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 26 Mar 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; ADVECTION; BERING SEA; BIOMASS; CARBON CYCLE; CONTINENTAL MARGIN; CONTINENTAL SHELF; FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT; GULF STREAM; PRODUCTIVITY; ZOOPLANKTON

Citation Formats

Smith, Sharon L. The Roles of Advection and In Situ Growth in Determining the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Zooplankton: High Frequency Measurements of Zooplankton Biomass Coupled with Measurements of Secondary Productivity in the Middle Atlantic Bight. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.2172/8178.
Smith, Sharon L. The Roles of Advection and In Situ Growth in Determining the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Zooplankton: High Frequency Measurements of Zooplankton Biomass Coupled with Measurements of Secondary Productivity in the Middle Atlantic Bight. United States. doi:10.2172/8178.
Smith, Sharon L. 1999. "The Roles of Advection and In Situ Growth in Determining the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Zooplankton: High Frequency Measurements of Zooplankton Biomass Coupled with Measurements of Secondary Productivity in the Middle Atlantic Bight". United States. doi:10.2172/8178. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/8178.
@article{osti_8178,
title = {The Roles of Advection and In Situ Growth in Determining the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Zooplankton: High Frequency Measurements of Zooplankton Biomass Coupled with Measurements of Secondary Productivity in the Middle Atlantic Bight},
author = {Smith, Sharon L.},
abstractNote = {Evaluation of the role of continental margins in planetary carbon cycles can be approached in various ways, with the extremes being knowledge generated either by large-scale studies of a few basic characteristics of the carbon cycle of shelves worldwide (comparative approach) or by temporally intensive studies of a few sites selected to typify contrasting processes. Mechanisms of cross-shelf transfer, for example, are presently of great interest and within the US there are at least four differing continental shelf environments in which cross-shelf processes are driven by storms (southern Bering Sea, northeastern US), by jets and eddies (northern California coast), by freshwater runoff (Bering Sea, Gulf of Mexico), and by frontal meanders and filaments of the Gulf Stream (southeastern US). Because the type and magnitude of the physical forcing, and its variability on an annual scale, are fundamental to the response of the carbon cycle, investigation of each of these shelves would offer insight useful to predictive global understanding of the carbon cycle on continental shelves.},
doi = {10.2172/8178},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1999,
month = 3
}

Technical Report:

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  • A study of sediment dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) in the vicinity of the Cape Hatteras Confluence (CHC), including the mouths of estuaries, the shelf and the slope, was carried out by investigators at North Carolina State University as part of the Department of Energy Ocean Margins Program. Studied were processes effecting sediment motion. In particular, the processes which determine rates of vertical transport of dissolved carbon dioxide and organic matter and particulates to and from the bottom by turbulent mixing resuspension and particulate sinking and vertical motions induced by BBL convergences; especially during periods of storm activitymore » when both surface waves and currents are maxima.« less
  • This report summarizes research on circulation and particle dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf and upper slope. It includes an overview of the field experiments conducted in the waters off North Carolina, and gives the principal results from these experiments.
  • Two field studies were conducted across and along the continental shelf, one from February to May 1996 (deployment 1) and the other from July to October 1996 (deployment 2), in part to determine the mass and salt budgets of shelf water from south of Cape Henry to north of Cape Hatteras, the southernmost portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The temporal means of current meter records indicated that most of the water enters the region across its northern boundary near the shelf break as part of a southward, alongshore current and exits the southeast corner as a southeastward flowing current. Estimatesmore » of the volume transports indicated that not all the transport across the northern boundary was accounted for by transport across the southern boundary, and that the remainder occurred as a broad, diffusive flow across the eastern boundary at the shelf break. Time series of volume transport across northern and southern boundaries were very similar and associated with variations in the alongshore wind stress and sea level, indicative of a geostrophic balance. Examination of the individual current meter records indicated these fluctuations were very barotropic even during deployment 2, which included the stratified summer season. Time series of the volume transport across the eastern boundary at the shelf break strongly mirrored the volume transport across the northern boundary minus that across the southern boundary, suggesting that the inferred eastern boundary transport was real and accommodated whatever the southern boundary could not. The turbulent salt flux across each boundary contributes very little to the net respective mass fluxes because the salt fluxes are almost governed by current velocity fields. The instantaneous and mean salt fluxes across each boundary were very well approximated by the instantaneous and mean volume transports across the boundary times the deployment average salinity across that boundary, respectively. The Ocean Margins Program (OMP) moored current and salinity observations appear sufficient to make estimates of the mean and time-dependent mass and salt balance.« less
  • This is a report on the progress of continental margin oceanographic studies being conducted as a part of the overall DOE South Atlantic Bight program. The NCSU-DOE program is working towards a fundamental understanding of oceanographic processes which determine the transport pathways, residence times and ultimate fate of biological and chemical parameters in the coastal environment. Additionally, the SAB has been considered a potential area for fuel producing facilities and activities, as a medium for fuel transport and as a fuel waste receptacle. In that regard, impact upon the environment and environmental impact upon the activity can only be addressedmore » with a more thorough assessment of the environment itself. Research activities have been directed toward the development of the bottom mounted tripod multiple input sensor system, toward the continuing analyses of South Atlantic Bight (Gabex I, Carolina Capes and Gabex II) current meter and ancillary data sets and toward the development of conceptual and theoretical models of continental margin processes and effects.« less
  • The objectives of the project were to determine the physical/dynamical processes controlling/affecting the distribution of phytoplankton nutrients on the continental shelf in the South Atlantic Bight. The initial objectives were to determine the short term, i.e., 2 to 10 day and longer term flux of nutrients onto the continental shelf. This is clearly related to the more general problem of combined physical and biogenic control of phytoplankton nutrients. During the period from June, 1975 to March, 1978 the study of the continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight has been principally involved with a substantial, coordinatedmore » field effort. The success of the data acquisition phase of the program has now required an intensive data analysis phase which has been slowly increasing in effort. Emphasis is placed on the main phase of the field program, located in Onslow Bay, which has beel completed and the data are being analyzed. During the three-year period 20 cruises were made into the Carolina Capes area and samples were collected. A list is included of some 100 publications during the period.« less