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Title: Hydrogen Production as a Major Nuclear Energy Application

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
788574
Report Number(s):
P01-111133
TRN: US200203%%151
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Conference title not supplied, Conference location not supplied, Conference dates not supplied; Other Information: PBD: 19 Jun 2001
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; HYDROGEN PRODUCTION; NUCLEAR ENERGY; ROBOTS

Citation Formats

Forsberg, C.W. Hydrogen Production as a Major Nuclear Energy Application. United States: N. p., 2001. Web.
Forsberg, C.W. Hydrogen Production as a Major Nuclear Energy Application. United States.
Forsberg, C.W. Tue . "Hydrogen Production as a Major Nuclear Energy Application". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/788574.
@article{osti_788574,
title = {Hydrogen Production as a Major Nuclear Energy Application},
author = {Forsberg, C.W.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jun 19 00:00:00 EDT 2001},
month = {Tue Jun 19 00:00:00 EDT 2001}
}

Conference:
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  • Here we propose a basic concept of a multipurpose small-sized fast reactor and its applicability to produce nuclear hydrogen for near future mass use of hydrogen industrial and public use. The modular-type fast reactor of 150 MW thermal output does not require fuel exchange nor decommissioning on the site, and can be transported from the factory in a fabricated form. For the hydrogen production, we propose to use the sorption enhanced reforming process (SERP), in which the steam-methane reforming can take place around 450 - 550. Since this temperature range is rather low compared to the ongoing steam reforming methodmore » (> 800 ), the SERP system combined with an adequate nuclear reactor system should be a promising one to cope with the coming age of hydrogen civilization. (authors)« less
  • The use of nuclear energy in the production of hydrogen by electrolysis, thermochemical processes, hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical processes, nuclear irradiation, and nuclear-assisted production from fossil fuels is discussed. (LK)
  • In Japan, so-called a formal nuclear policy; The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy is built up by Japan Atomic Energy Commission at every 5-year, in which not only a conventional light water reactor (LWR) but also a fast breeder reactor (FBR), HTGR and a fusion reactor (FR) is referred as a prominent candidate of long-term (<100 years) nuclear energy source. The policy makers might have multi-purpose scenarios for a future of innovated nuclear energy systems through results of various discussions at their level. According to long-term nuclear knowledge management, the author made ex ante evaluation of HTGR known as themore » intellectual assets of JAERI 1, from the viewpoint of hypothetical benefits under conditions of substantial uncertainty. Nuclear knowledge management (NKM) is an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, managing and sharing an organization's nuclear knowledge, and enabling persons to create new nuclear knowledge collectively and thereby helping achieve the objectives. NKM identifies, optimizes, and actively manages intellectual assets either in the form of explicit knowledge held in intangible products or tacit knowledge possessed by individuals or communities in the nuclear fields. In the present study the authors wish not only to show the validity of long-term NKM as a key factor of HTGR but also to assess their hypothetical benefits through the year 2050 under conditions of substantial uncertainty. It should be stressed that those factors are important intellectual assets of JAERI developed to date. Additionally, in the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy constructed up by the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, a LWR, a fast breeder reactor (FBR), a HTGR, and a fusion reactor (FR) are all defined as eligible and prominent candidates for long-term nuclear energy sources. In this sense, we estimate here a direct market creation of (1) hydrogen energy production and (2) electricity generation, by commercialized HTGR through the year 2050 with several assumptions. HTGR is important intellectual assets that have been developed by JAERI, and it is also promising technological vision for fostering the concept of innovative nuclear energy systems. The author made case studies for assessing the potential benefits of these technologies by means of long-term nuclear knowledge management. Recognizing the substantial amount of uncertainty contained in the estimates, the results obtained are as follows. Commercialized HTGR will induce a cost reduction in hydrogen energy production, and the resultant market through 2020 will grow to 19.7 b$ in Japan. The share of JAERI to this activity (MCP) from 2010 to 2050 will be 1.2 b$. The use of HTGR induces a cost reduction of electric power after its commercialization, and the share of JAERI in this activity (MCP) from 2010 to 2050 will be 0.29 b$. To ensure the success of long-term innovative nuclear energy systems, it is necessary to derive and assess the sustainable scenarios and incorporate long-term and robust NKM. More technological innovations are expected to occur in HTGR project to increase its profitableness as the same level as LWR. (author)« less
  • Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishingmore » a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are compared and assessed. The analysis shows that only high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) and sodium fast breed reactor might be available in China in 2020 for hydrogen production. Further development of very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is necessary to ensure China's future capability of hydrogen production with nuclear energy as the primary energy. It is obvious that hydrogen production with high efficient nuclear energy will be a suitable strategic technology road, through which future clean vehicles burning hydrogen fuel cells will become dominant in future Chinese transportation industry and will play sound role in ensuring future energy security of China and the sustainable prosperity of Chinese people. (author)« less
  • The Department of Energy has funded studies of the use of High Temperature Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactors (HTR) to supply energy to convert raw chemicals to useful secondary energy carriers and chemical products. The helium-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR is a unique source for such primary energy in that it is capable of delivering heat at high temperatures. There are currently two candidate HTR designs. Favored in the US is General Atomic's Prismatic Core HTR such as commercially installed at Fort St. Vrain. Under development in West Germany is a prototype Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). Two primary applications of HTR heat havemore » been considered. These are the Thermochemical Energy Pipeline (TCP) and diverse coal conversion processes.« less