skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: models I and II

Abstract

A global atmospheric model is developed with a computational efficiency which allows long-range climate experiments. The model solves the simultaneous equations for conservation of mass, energy and momentum, and the equation of state on a grid. Differencing schemes for the dynamics are based on work of Arakawa. Cloud cover and vertical distribution are computed. Convection mixes moisture, heat and momentum, with buoyant air allowed to penetrate to a height determined by its buoyancy. Ground temperature calculations include diurnal variation and seasonal heat storage. Ground hydrology incorporates a water-holding capacity appropriate for the root zone of local vegetation. Snow depth is computed. Snow albedo includes effects of snow age and masking by vegetation. Surface fluxes are obtained from a drag-law formulation and parameterization of the Monin-Obukhov similarity relations. The initial Model I is used for 60 climate sensitivity experiments with integration times from 3 months to 5 years. These experiments determine the dependence of model simulation on various physical assumptions and model parameters. Several modifications are incorporated to produce Model II, the greatest changes arising from more realistic parameterization of the effect of boundary layer stratification on surface fluxes and the addition of friction in the top stratospheric layer to minimizemore » effects of wave reflection from the rigid model top. The model's climate simulations are compared to observations and a brief study is made of effects of horizontal resolution. It is verified that the major features of global climate can be realistically simulated with a resolution as coarse as 1000 km, which requires an order of magnitude less computation time than used by most general circulation models. 93 references, 44 figures, 8 tables.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, New York, NY
OSTI Identifier:
7120786
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Mon. Weather Rev.; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CLIMATE MODELS; SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS; CLIMATES; GLOBAL ASPECTS; AEROSOLS; ALBEDO; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; BOUNDARY LAYERS; CLOUDS; COMPILED DATA; ENERGY TRANSFER; HYDROLOGY; MASS TRANSFER; MOISTURE; MOMENTUM TRANSFER; SNOW; SOLAR RADIATION; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; COLLOIDS; DATA; DISPERSIONS; INFORMATION; LAYERS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NUMERICAL DATA; RADIATIONS; SOLS; STELLAR RADIATION; 500100* - Environment, Atmospheric- Basic Studies- (-1989); 500200 - Environment, Atmospheric- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Hansen, J, Russell, G, Rind, D, Stone, P, Lacis, A, Lebedeff, S, Ruedy, R, and Travis, L. Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: models I and II. United States: N. p., 1983. Web. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2.
Hansen, J, Russell, G, Rind, D, Stone, P, Lacis, A, Lebedeff, S, Ruedy, R, & Travis, L. Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: models I and II. United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2
Hansen, J, Russell, G, Rind, D, Stone, P, Lacis, A, Lebedeff, S, Ruedy, R, and Travis, L. Fri . "Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: models I and II". United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2.
@article{osti_7120786,
title = {Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: models I and II},
author = {Hansen, J and Russell, G and Rind, D and Stone, P and Lacis, A and Lebedeff, S and Ruedy, R and Travis, L},
abstractNote = {A global atmospheric model is developed with a computational efficiency which allows long-range climate experiments. The model solves the simultaneous equations for conservation of mass, energy and momentum, and the equation of state on a grid. Differencing schemes for the dynamics are based on work of Arakawa. Cloud cover and vertical distribution are computed. Convection mixes moisture, heat and momentum, with buoyant air allowed to penetrate to a height determined by its buoyancy. Ground temperature calculations include diurnal variation and seasonal heat storage. Ground hydrology incorporates a water-holding capacity appropriate for the root zone of local vegetation. Snow depth is computed. Snow albedo includes effects of snow age and masking by vegetation. Surface fluxes are obtained from a drag-law formulation and parameterization of the Monin-Obukhov similarity relations. The initial Model I is used for 60 climate sensitivity experiments with integration times from 3 months to 5 years. These experiments determine the dependence of model simulation on various physical assumptions and model parameters. Several modifications are incorporated to produce Model II, the greatest changes arising from more realistic parameterization of the effect of boundary layer stratification on surface fluxes and the addition of friction in the top stratospheric layer to minimize effects of wave reflection from the rigid model top. The model's climate simulations are compared to observations and a brief study is made of effects of horizontal resolution. It is verified that the major features of global climate can be realistically simulated with a resolution as coarse as 1000 km, which requires an order of magnitude less computation time than used by most general circulation models. 93 references, 44 figures, 8 tables.},
doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7120786}, journal = {Mon. Weather Rev.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 111:4,
place = {United States},
year = {1983},
month = {4}
}