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Title: Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC

Abstract

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a unique hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C (FACC) has recently been cloned. The authors have amplified FACC exons with their flanking intron sequences from genomic DNA from 174 racially and ethnically diverse families in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry and have screened for mutations by using SSCP analysis. They have identified eight different variants in 32 families; three were detected in exon 1, one in exon 4, one in intron 4, two in exon 6, and one in exon 14. Two of the eight variants, in seven families, did not segregate with the disease allele in multiplex families, suggesting that these variants represented benign polymorphisms. Disease-associated mutations in FACC were detected in a total of 25 (14.4%) of 174 families screened. The most frequent mutations were IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T (intron 4; 12 families) and 322delG (exon 1; 9 families). Other, less common mutations include Q13X in exon 1, R185X and D195V in exon 6, and L554P in exon 14. The polymorphisms were S26F in exon 1 and G139E in exon 4. All patients in the study withmore » 322delG, Q13X, R185X, and D195V are of northern or eastern European or southern Italian ancestry, and 18 of 19 have a mild form of the disease, while the 2 patients with L554P, both from the same family, have a severe phenotype. All 19 patients with IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T have Jewish ancestry and have a severe phenotype. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States))
  2. (Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7105240
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Human Genetics; (United States); Journal Volume: 54:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ANEMIAS; GENE MUTATIONS; DNA; CROSS-LINKING; HUMAN POPULATIONS; GENETIC VARIABILITY; BIOLOGICAL VARIABILITY; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DISEASES; HEMIC DISEASES; MUTATIONS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; POLYMERIZATION; POPULATIONS; SYMPTOMS 550400* -- Genetics

Citation Formats

Verlander, P.C., Lin, J.D., Udono, M.U., Zhang, Q., Auerbach, A.D., Gibson, R.A., and Mathew, C.G. Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Verlander, P.C., Lin, J.D., Udono, M.U., Zhang, Q., Auerbach, A.D., Gibson, R.A., & Mathew, C.G. Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC. United States.
Verlander, P.C., Lin, J.D., Udono, M.U., Zhang, Q., Auerbach, A.D., Gibson, R.A., and Mathew, C.G. 1994. "Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_7105240,
title = {Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC},
author = {Verlander, P.C. and Lin, J.D. and Udono, M.U. and Zhang, Q. and Auerbach, A.D. and Gibson, R.A. and Mathew, C.G.},
abstractNote = {Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a unique hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C (FACC) has recently been cloned. The authors have amplified FACC exons with their flanking intron sequences from genomic DNA from 174 racially and ethnically diverse families in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry and have screened for mutations by using SSCP analysis. They have identified eight different variants in 32 families; three were detected in exon 1, one in exon 4, one in intron 4, two in exon 6, and one in exon 14. Two of the eight variants, in seven families, did not segregate with the disease allele in multiplex families, suggesting that these variants represented benign polymorphisms. Disease-associated mutations in FACC were detected in a total of 25 (14.4%) of 174 families screened. The most frequent mutations were IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T (intron 4; 12 families) and 322delG (exon 1; 9 families). Other, less common mutations include Q13X in exon 1, R185X and D195V in exon 6, and L554P in exon 14. The polymorphisms were S26F in exon 1 and G139E in exon 4. All patients in the study with 322delG, Q13X, R185X, and D195V are of northern or eastern European or southern Italian ancestry, and 18 of 19 have a mild form of the disease, while the 2 patients with L554P, both from the same family, have a severe phenotype. All 19 patients with IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T have Jewish ancestry and have a severe phenotype. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {American Journal of Human Genetics; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 54:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month = 4
}
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder defined by hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C(FACC) has been cloned. Two common mutations, IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG, and several rare mutations have recently been reported in affected individuals. We now report the development of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assays for rapid, non-radioactive detection of these known mutations in FACC. Primer pairs specific for variant sequences were designed, with the 3{prime} terminal base of one primer matching the variant base. PCR products are separated by electrophoresis on 2.5% agarose gels; mutationsmore » are indicated by the presence of a band of a specific size. These ARMS assays can be multiplexed to allow screening for all known mutations in two PCR reactions. We have used these assays for detection of FACC mutations in affected individuals in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR), and for carrier detection FACC families. IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is the only FACC mutation found in Jewish FA patients and their families, of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic ancestry. This mutation was not found in any affected individual of non-Jewish origin. In addition, DNA samples from 1596 healthy Jewish individuals primarily of Ashkenazi ancestry were supplied to us by Dor Yeshorim. These samples, ascertained for carrier screening for Tay Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and other genetic diseases with a high frequency in the religious Jewish community served by this organization, were tested for both IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG mutations; seventeen IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T are of Sephardic Jewish ancestry. We hypothesize that IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is a very old mutation, predating the divergence of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic populations. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers is in progress.« less
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a variety of congenital and skeletal malformations, progressive pancytopanenia and predisposition to malignancies. FA cells display chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Both the human and the corresponding murine cDNAs have been cloned in our lab. Here we describe the expression of Facc during mouse development, using mRNA in situ hybridization. Our aim is to obtain clues on the possible function of the Facc gene product during development that may help elucidate basic defect(s) in FA. In addition, knowledge of the exact pattern of Facc expression will assist inmore » interpreting the phenotypes of mutant mice, currently being developed. In embryos the gene is diffusely expressed over the entire embryo, with higher hybridization levels in the mesenchyme and in both upper and lower extremities. Specific expression of Facc is seen in the perichondrium and marrow of long bones of hind limbs/hip; long bones of front limbs/shoulder region; developing digits of front and hind paws; and ribs. The signal is also detected in the following regions: cranial/frontal; facial/periorbital and maxillary/mandibular, hair follicles, diaphragm and lung. In addition, generalized Facc expression is seen during these embryonic stages. The pattern of Facc expression is consistent with the known skeletal abnormalities in FA patients, which include radial ray deformities, metacarpal hypoplasia, and abnormalities of lower limbs, ribs, head and face. The signal in the lung is consistent with the lung lobe absence and abnormal pulmonary drainage that have been detected in some FA patients. The sloped forehead and microcephaly in FA patients may have some association with the signal seen in the frontal region of the mouse cranium. Taken together, our results suggest that Facc is directly involved in the development of various embryonic tissues, particularly bone.« less
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous syndrome, with at least four different complementation groups as determined by cell fusion studies. The gene for complementation group C, FACC, has been cloned and mapped to chromosome 9q22.3 by in situ hybridization, while linkage analysis has supported the placement of another gene on chromosome 20q. We have analyzed five microsatellite markers and one RFLP on chromosome 9q in a panel of FA families from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR) in order to place FACC on the genetic map. Polymorphisms were typed in 308 individuals from 51 families. FACC is tightly linkedmore » to both D9S151 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.025, Z{sub max}=7.75] and to D9S196 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.041, Z{sub max}=7.89]; multipoint analysis is in progress. We are currently screening a YAC clone that contains the entire FACC gene for additional microsatellite markers suitable for haplotype analysis of FA families.« less
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital malformations and predisposition to malignancies. The gene responsible for the defect in FA group C has been cloned and designated the Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C gene (FACC). A murine cDNA for this gene (Facc) was also cloned. Here we report our progress in the establishment of a mouse model for FA. The mouse Facc cDNA was used as probe to screen a genomic library of mouse strain 129. More than twenty positive clones were isolated. Three of them were mapped and found to be overlappingmore » clones, encompassing the genomic region from exon 8 to the end of the 3{prime} UTR of the mouse cDNA. A targeting vector was constructed using the most 5{prime} mouse genomic sequence available. The end result of the homologous recombination is that exon 8 is deleted and the neo gene is inserted. The last exon, exon 14, is essential for the complementing function of the FACC gene product; the disruption in the middle of the murine Facc gene should render this locus biologically inactive. This targeting vector was linearized and electroporated into R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells which were derived from the 129 mouse. Of 102 clones screened, 19 positive cell lines were identified. Four targeted cell lines have been used to produce chimeric mice. 129-derived ES cells were aggregated ex vivo into the morulas derived from CD1 mice and then implanted into foster mothers. 22 chimeras have been obtained. Moderately and strongly chimeric mice have been bred to test for germline transmission. Progeny with the expected coat color derived from 2 chimeras are currently being examined to confirm transmission of the targeted allele.« less
  • Cells from all four Fanconi anemia complementation groups show hypersensitivity to cell-killing by mitomycin C (MMC), diepoxybutane (DEB) and other DNA cross-linking agents, and increased spontaneous and DEB-induced chromosome aberrations (CA). The extent of these phenotypes varies between lymphoblastoid cell lines from different complementation groups. Our data showed that the difference in MMC hypersensitivity and DEB-CA was not always coupled. While 230N (FA-B) had higher DEB-induced CA/cell than 536N (FA-C) (7.42 vs. 4.46 respectively), that latter was much more sensitive to cell-killing by MMC (dose at 10% survival, D{sub 10}: 5.2 vs. 1.2 ng/ml respectively). Strathdes et al. (1992) clonedmore » a cDNA Fanconi anemia complementation group C (FACC) which complemented the hypersensitivity to MMC and DEB cell-killing of FA-C cells (536N) but not cells from the other three complementation groups. The present study was initiated to determine whether chromosome instability in 536N is also complemented by the FACC (FAC3) cDNA. The pREP4-FAC3 vector was transfected into 536N and transfectants selected with hygromycin B. The DEB D{sub 10} of 536N (1.0 {mu}M) was corrected to the control level (16.2 {mu}M for 3TO) by FACC (15.1 {mu}M for 536N-FACC), as previously demonstrated. Chromosome instability (cab, cse, ctb, cte) was determined without and with 0.1 {mu}g/ml DEB treatment. Spontaneous CA of 536N (0.30 aberrations/cell) was corrected to the control level (0.04 for 3TO) by FACC (0.06 for 536N-FACC). Similarly, the DEB-induced CA was corrected (2.74 for 536N vs. 0.06 and 0.02 for 3TO and 536N-FACC respectively). Thus, at least for FA complementation group C, hypersensitivity to cell-killing and chromosome instability are not dissociated and are most likely caused by the same gene defect.« less