skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Anode spot: a review of experimental work and suggested areas for future investigation

Abstract

The anode spot in vacuum arcs is discussed; presently available experimental work and desirable areas for future work are examined. The following subjects are discussed: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during, and after formation of an anode spot; and anode ions. Under appropriate experimental conditions formation of an anode spot may be preceded by the formation of an anode footpoint. This footpoint is luminous, but much cooler than a true anode spot. A fully developed anode spot has a temperature near the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. A need exists for temperature measurements on anode spots in dc arcs. No measurements have been made on anode spots in arcs with rectangular current pulses whose durations are in the millisecond range, so measurements on any parameters of anode spots in such arcs would be desirable. 2 figures, 9 tables, 34 references.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Electric Co., St. Petersburg, FL (USA). Neutron Devices Dept.
OSTI Identifier:
6798297
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6798297
Report Number(s):
GEPP-394
DOE Contract Number:
EY-76-C-04-0656
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ELECTRIC ARCS; REVIEWS; ALUMINIUM; ANODES; COPPER; RECOMMENDATIONS; TIN; CURRENTS; DOCUMENT TYPES; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRIC DISCHARGES; ELECTRODES; ELEMENTS; METALS; TRANSITION ELEMENTS 640420* -- Fluid Physics-- Properties & Structure of Fluids-- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Miller, H.C. Anode spot: a review of experimental work and suggested areas for future investigation. United States: N. p., 1978. Web.
Miller, H.C. Anode spot: a review of experimental work and suggested areas for future investigation. United States.
Miller, H.C. Fri . "Anode spot: a review of experimental work and suggested areas for future investigation". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6798297,
title = {Anode spot: a review of experimental work and suggested areas for future investigation},
author = {Miller, H.C.},
abstractNote = {The anode spot in vacuum arcs is discussed; presently available experimental work and desirable areas for future work are examined. The following subjects are discussed: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during, and after formation of an anode spot; and anode ions. Under appropriate experimental conditions formation of an anode spot may be preceded by the formation of an anode footpoint. This footpoint is luminous, but much cooler than a true anode spot. A fully developed anode spot has a temperature near the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. A need exists for temperature measurements on anode spots in dc arcs. No measurements have been made on anode spots in arcs with rectangular current pulses whose durations are in the millisecond range, so measurements on any parameters of anode spots in such arcs would be desirable. 2 figures, 9 tables, 34 references.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1978},
month = {Fri Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1978}
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share:
  • The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located at a depth of 650 m in bedded salt at a site approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, was constructed by the US Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic wastes arising from defense-related activities. The disposal site is regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). During the process leading to certification of the site for initial emplacement of waste, EEG and their contractors reviewed the DOE Compliance Certification Application (CCA) and raised a number of issues. This report reviews the issues related to the chemistry of plutonium asmore » it will affect the potential for release of radioactivity under WIPP conditions. Emphasis is placed on conditions appropriate for the Human Intrusion scenario(s), since human intrusion has the largest potential for releasing radioactivity to the environment under WIPP conditions. The most significant issues that need to be addressed in relation to plutonium chemistry under WIPP conditions are (1) the effects of heterogeneity in the repository on Pu concentrations in brines introduced under the human intrusion scenario, (2) the redox state of Pu in solution and potential for plutonium in solid phases to have a different redox state from that in the solution phase, (3) the effect of organic ligands on the solubility of Pu in WIPP-relevant brines, and (4) the effects of TRU waste characteristics in determining the solubility of Pu. These issues are reviewed with respect to the treatment they received in the DOE CCA, DOE’s response to EEG’s comments on the CCA, and EPA’s response to those comments as reflected in the final EPA rule that led to the opening of the WIPP. Experimental results obtained in DOE’s Actinide Source-Term Test Program (STTP) during the last two years are reviewed and interpreted in the light of other developments in the field of Pu solution chemistry. This analysis is used as the basis for a conceptual model for Pu behavior under WIPP conditions. This report identifies three issues that can be addressed as part of the five-year re-certification cycles mandated by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (U.S. Congress, 1996, *8.(f)(1)) and implemented in the EPA Final Rule (U.S. EPA, 1998a). First, the impact of organic ligands on the complexation of a system with multiple cations could be delineated by some simple experiments with Th (IV), citrate,EDTA, Ca 2+ and one or more transition metals. An experiment with Pu (IV) could be designed to determine the lability of Pu oxidation states in the presence of organic ligands. Second, the issue of using analogs for Pu could be addressed with appropriate experiments using U and Pu at redox conditions in the range anticipated at the WIPP. Attention to the published experimental results of U and Pu could make a considerable contribution to this effort. Third, the issue of uncertainty in calculated actinide solubility can be resolved with experimental data for Pu (IV) compounds of appropriate compositions. The report also recommends starting by constructing a data base for U and Pu using the published, peer-reviewed OECD/NEA U and Pu data bases.« less
  • This is a summary of the progress made during the period March 1975 through September 1975 on EG and G's support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for development of airborne techniques for measurement of the water equivalent of snow and soil moisture. The work included a series of snow and soil moisture surveys and development of a new detector and data acquisition system. The status of this work is summarized here together with a review of plans for the immediate future.
  • This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated themore » currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.« less
  • This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.