skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae

Abstract

Embryos and newly hatched larvae of three amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), were exposed to fluoranthene and ultraviolet (UV) light in two scenarios. Embryos were exposed in a laboratory setting from an early developmental stage through hatching under artificial UV light, and newly hatched larvae were exposed outdoors in varying sunlight intensity levels. Outdoor exposures indicated greater sensitivity in the toxic response than did laboratory exposures. In the laboratory, mortality and malformation of X. laevis were the most sensitive indicators of exposure. Xenopus laevis was also the most sensitive species tested to the effects of UV light alone. Hatching success of R. pipiens was monitored outdoors and was not a useful predictive endpoint in the determination of photoinduced toxicity; however, newly hatched larvae were sensitive to the effects of photoinduced toxicity. Amybstoma maculatum and X. laevis larvae were affected by low ({micro}g/L) concentrations of fluoranthene in sunlight. These findings suggest that low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be acting synergistically with environmental factors such as UV light to place young amphibians at risk.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Zoology
  2. Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
675417
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; CONDENSED AROMATICS; TOXICITY; PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS; WATER POLLUTION; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; FROGS; SALAMANDERS; GENETIC VARIABILITY; SYNERGISM; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Citation Formats

Hatch, A.C., and Burton, G.A. Jr.. Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae. United States: N. p., 1998. Web. doi:10.1002/etc.5620170918.
Hatch, A.C., & Burton, G.A. Jr.. Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae. United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620170918.
Hatch, A.C., and Burton, G.A. Jr.. 1998. "Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae". United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620170918.
@article{osti_675417,
title = {Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae},
author = {Hatch, A.C. and Burton, G.A. Jr.},
abstractNote = {Embryos and newly hatched larvae of three amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), were exposed to fluoranthene and ultraviolet (UV) light in two scenarios. Embryos were exposed in a laboratory setting from an early developmental stage through hatching under artificial UV light, and newly hatched larvae were exposed outdoors in varying sunlight intensity levels. Outdoor exposures indicated greater sensitivity in the toxic response than did laboratory exposures. In the laboratory, mortality and malformation of X. laevis were the most sensitive indicators of exposure. Xenopus laevis was also the most sensitive species tested to the effects of UV light alone. Hatching success of R. pipiens was monitored outdoors and was not a useful predictive endpoint in the determination of photoinduced toxicity; however, newly hatched larvae were sensitive to the effects of photoinduced toxicity. Amybstoma maculatum and X. laevis larvae were affected by low ({micro}g/L) concentrations of fluoranthene in sunlight. These findings suggest that low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be acting synergistically with environmental factors such as UV light to place young amphibians at risk.},
doi = {10.1002/etc.5620170918},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
number = 9,
volume = 17,
place = {United States},
year = 1998,
month = 9
}
  • The effects of dissolved humic materials (DHM) on the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied in single-treatment evaluations in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight (UV-A = 140.2 {+-} 2.6 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UV-B = 6.40 {+-} 0.21 {micro}W/cm{sup 2})(mean {+-} SE). Five concentrations of fluoranthene and five concentrations of DHM were achieved. The presence of DHM reduced the acute photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene. Regression analysis revealed that median lethal times (LT50) were directly related to DHM concentration and inversely related to fluoranthene water concentration. The presence of DHM also reduced fluoranthene bioaccumulation, and LT50more » values were inversely related to fluoranthene body residues. These findings demonstrate that (1) the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene is dependent on body residue and (2) site-specific environmental parameters that affect uptake and/or elimination can determine the rates of mortality due to photoinduced toxicity.« less
  • Rana pipiens larvae were exposed for 48 h in a flow-through system to clean water or five concentrations of the phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. Following this uptake period, the larvae were divided into four groups: one for immediate tissue residue analysis, a second for residue analysis following 48 h of depuration in clean water, and two for a 48-h exposure in clean water to ultraviolet (UV) light at two different levels. At the highest treatment, mean intensity was 8.12 {+-} 0.19 {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, whereas at a lower treatment the UVA intensity was 4.45 {+-} 0.05more » {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}. Larval frogs bioaccumulated fluoranthene in direct proportion to the water exposure concentrations, with initial whole-body PAH concentrations of 1.48, 3.53, 4.85, 11.3, and 18.7 {micro}g/g at the five treatment levels. No mortality of the animals occurred during the 48-h uptake phase. When the frogs were placed in clean water, the fluoranthene was rapidly depurated, with up to 80% lost in 48 h. Exposure to UV light following fluoranthene exposure significantly enhanced toxicity of the PAH. Median time to death decreased as the product of UVA light intensity and fluoranthene body residue increased. For larval R. Pipiens, sufficient tissue residues of fluoranthene were bioaccumulated within 48 h, at water exposure concentrations in the range of 2 to 10 {micro}g/L, to be lethal when combined with a UVA exposure simulating a fraction of summertime, midday sunlight in northern latitudes.« less
  • Amphibians are potentially sensitive indicator organisms of environmental stress because of their permeable skins and biphasic life cycles. The goals of this study were to use behavioral and histopathological endpoints to examine the sublethal effects of fluoranthene exposure in conjunction with solar ultraviolet radiation on bullfrog larvae. Exposure to fluoranthene and simulated solar ultraviolet radiation for 48 h caused a significant effect on locomotor behavior at 60 {micro}g fluoranthene/L. At 96 h, however, hyperactivity was noted in the 40-{micro}g fluoranthene/L exposure. The skin of bullfrog larvae was sensitive to the phototoxic effects of fluoranthene. Following exposure to sublethal levels ofmore » fluoranthene there were signs of necrosis as well as structural alterations in the skin when examined using light microscopy. Based on these results, the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene, and hence other phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pose a potential hazard to ranid larvae well within the water solubility limits of the compound.« less
  • Antimony, as antimony trioxide, is a commerically important metal used as a flame retarding agent. Thallium has industrial application as a catalyst for many organic reactions and in the production of alloys and electronic devices. Accordingly, both metals are potential pollutants through anthropogenic sources. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of these metals on the embryos and larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).