skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Structure, chemistry, and growth mechanisms of photovoltaic quality thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] grown from a mixed-phase precursor

Abstract

The formation chemistry and growth dynamics of thin-film CuInSe[sub 2] grown by physical vapor deposition have been considered along the reaction path leading from the Cu[sub [ital x]]Se:CuInSe[sub 2] two-phase region to single-phase CuInSe[sub 2]. The (Cu[sub 2]Se)[sub [beta]](CuInSe[sub 2])[sub 1[minus][beta]] (0[lt][beta][le]1) mixed-phase precursor is created in a manner consistent with a liquid-phase assisted growth process. At substrate temperatures above 500 [degree]C and in the presence of excess Se, the film structure is columnar through the film thickness with column diameters in the range of 2.0--5.0 [mu]m. Films deposited on glass are described as highly oriented with nearly exclusive (112) crystalline orientation. CuInSe[sub 2]:Cu[sub [ital x]]Se phase separation is identified and occurs primarily normal to the substrate plane at free surfaces. Single-phase CuInSe[sub 2] is created by the conversion of the Cu[sub [ital x]]Se into CuInSe[sub 2] upon exposure to In and Se activity. Noninterrupted columnar growth continues at substrate temperatures above 500 [degree]C. The addition of In in excess of that required for conversion produces an In-rich near-surface region with a CuIn[sub 3]Se[sub 5] surface chemistry. A model is developed that describes the growth process. The model provides a vision for the production of thin-film CuInSe[sub 2] in industrialmore » scale systems. Photovoltaic devices incorporating Ga with total-area efficiencies of 14.4%--16.4% have been produced by this process and variations on this process.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6720854
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 77:1; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COPPER SELENIDES; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; GALLIUM SELENIDES; INDIUM SELENIDES; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; GROWTH; PHASE STUDIES; PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; POLYCRYSTALS; PRECURSOR; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS; CHALCOGENIDES; COPPER COMPOUNDS; CRYSTALS; DEPOSITION; DIRECT ENERGY CONVERTERS; EQUIPMENT; FILMS; GALLIUM COMPOUNDS; INDIUM COMPOUNDS; PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS; PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS; SELENIDES; SELENIUM COMPOUNDS; SOLAR EQUIPMENT; SURFACE COATING; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; 140501* - Solar Energy Conversion- Photovoltaic Conversion; 360606 - Other Materials- Physical Properties- (1992-)

Citation Formats

Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M, Bode, M H, Niles, D, Albin, D S, Matson, R, Gabor, A M, Tennant, A, Duda, A, and Noufi, R. Structure, chemistry, and growth mechanisms of photovoltaic quality thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] grown from a mixed-phase precursor. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1063/1.359362.
Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M, Bode, M H, Niles, D, Albin, D S, Matson, R, Gabor, A M, Tennant, A, Duda, A, & Noufi, R. Structure, chemistry, and growth mechanisms of photovoltaic quality thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] grown from a mixed-phase precursor. United States. doi:10.1063/1.359362.
Tuttle, J R, Contreras, M, Bode, M H, Niles, D, Albin, D S, Matson, R, Gabor, A M, Tennant, A, Duda, A, and Noufi, R. Sun . "Structure, chemistry, and growth mechanisms of photovoltaic quality thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] grown from a mixed-phase precursor". United States. doi:10.1063/1.359362.
@article{osti_6720854,
title = {Structure, chemistry, and growth mechanisms of photovoltaic quality thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] grown from a mixed-phase precursor},
author = {Tuttle, J R and Contreras, M and Bode, M H and Niles, D and Albin, D S and Matson, R and Gabor, A M and Tennant, A and Duda, A and Noufi, R},
abstractNote = {The formation chemistry and growth dynamics of thin-film CuInSe[sub 2] grown by physical vapor deposition have been considered along the reaction path leading from the Cu[sub [ital x]]Se:CuInSe[sub 2] two-phase region to single-phase CuInSe[sub 2]. The (Cu[sub 2]Se)[sub [beta]](CuInSe[sub 2])[sub 1[minus][beta]] (0[lt][beta][le]1) mixed-phase precursor is created in a manner consistent with a liquid-phase assisted growth process. At substrate temperatures above 500 [degree]C and in the presence of excess Se, the film structure is columnar through the film thickness with column diameters in the range of 2.0--5.0 [mu]m. Films deposited on glass are described as highly oriented with nearly exclusive (112) crystalline orientation. CuInSe[sub 2]:Cu[sub [ital x]]Se phase separation is identified and occurs primarily normal to the substrate plane at free surfaces. Single-phase CuInSe[sub 2] is created by the conversion of the Cu[sub [ital x]]Se into CuInSe[sub 2] upon exposure to In and Se activity. Noninterrupted columnar growth continues at substrate temperatures above 500 [degree]C. The addition of In in excess of that required for conversion produces an In-rich near-surface region with a CuIn[sub 3]Se[sub 5] surface chemistry. A model is developed that describes the growth process. The model provides a vision for the production of thin-film CuInSe[sub 2] in industrial scale systems. Photovoltaic devices incorporating Ga with total-area efficiencies of 14.4%--16.4% have been produced by this process and variations on this process.},
doi = {10.1063/1.359362},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics; (United States)},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = ,
volume = 77:1,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {1}
}