skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance

Abstract

The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m/sup 3//day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m/sup 3//day. Electrical energy costs to produce one m/sup 3/ of potable water is SR 1.66 in Saudi Arabia and $1.66 to $2.21 in the United States. As with any new process, a number of important details must be learned to obtain the most out of the system. Some of these details are: (1) product water production rate and efficiency are maximized for this system at 10% salinity and ..delta..Ts greater than 3/degree/C, (2) the anhydrous ammonia must be kept clean, (3) the ice in the freezer tubes must be melted without decreasing the salinity of the mixture in the slurry separator, (4) the salinity of the mixture going through each of the freezer tubes must be the same, and (5) the salinity of the slurry must be less than 11%. The authors believe that a subsequent design of an indirect-contact freeze desalinationmore » sub-system can be successful. Maintenance of the desalination subsystem has been nominal with only about 6/1/2/ person days required per month. Proper operating procedures and some redesign of the desalination subsystem should minimize the required maintenance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6653692
Report Number(s):
MRI/SOL-0417
ON: DE89003224
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-83CH10093
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; DESALINATION; SOLAR ENERGY; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; AGRICULTURE; COST; DESIGN; ELECTRIC POWER; FREEZING OUT; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HEAT TRANSFER; IRRIGATION; MAINTENANCE; PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION; SAUDI ARABIA; SOLAR COLLECTORS; SOLAR COOLING SYSTEMS; SOLAR HEATING; SOLAR THERMAL CONVERSION; STEAM GENERATION; TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE EQUIPMENT; USA; ASIA; CONVERSION; DEMINERALIZATION; DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; ENERGY; ENERGY CONVERSION; ENERGY SOURCES; ENERGY TRANSFER; EQUIPMENT; HEATING; INDUSTRY; NORTH AMERICA; POWER; RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION; SOLAR EQUIPMENT; 140900* - Solar Thermal Utilization; 141000 - Solar Collectors & Concentrators; 142000 - Solar Energy- Heat Storage- (1980-); 140501 - Solar Energy Conversion- Photovoltaic Conversion

Citation Formats

Zimmerman, J C, and Al-Abbadi, N. SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
Zimmerman, J C, & Al-Abbadi, N. SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance. United States.
Zimmerman, J C, and Al-Abbadi, N. Fri . "SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance". United States.
@article{osti_6653692,
title = {SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance},
author = {Zimmerman, J C and Al-Abbadi, N},
abstractNote = {The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m/sup 3//day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m/sup 3//day. Electrical energy costs to produce one m/sup 3/ of potable water is SR 1.66 in Saudi Arabia and $1.66 to $2.21 in the United States. As with any new process, a number of important details must be learned to obtain the most out of the system. Some of these details are: (1) product water production rate and efficiency are maximized for this system at 10% salinity and ..delta..Ts greater than 3/degree/C, (2) the anhydrous ammonia must be kept clean, (3) the ice in the freezer tubes must be melted without decreasing the salinity of the mixture in the slurry separator, (4) the salinity of the mixture going through each of the freezer tubes must be the same, and (5) the salinity of the slurry must be less than 11%. The authors believe that a subsequent design of an indirect-contact freeze desalination sub-system can be successful. Maintenance of the desalination subsystem has been nominal with only about 6/1/2/ person days required per month. Proper operating procedures and some redesign of the desalination subsystem should minimize the required maintenance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1987},
month = {5}
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share: