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Title: Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens

Abstract

The mouse cell line MO-5 is resistant to transformation by various chemical carcinogens and also by UV irradiation. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed active expression of ras and myc genes in MO-5 and BALB/3T3 cells. The effect of transfection of various oncogenes on transformation was compared in MO-5 cells and parental BALB/3T3 cells. Activated c-H-ras, c-N-ras, and v-mos gene induced transformation foci of MO-5 and BALB/3T3. Introduction of the polyomavirus middle T-antigen (mTag) or the Rous sarcoma virus-related oncogene v-src, however, efficiently transformed BALB/3T3 but not MO-5 cells. Expression and phosphorylation of mTag and the associated c-src proteins were observed in mTag-transfected clones of MO-5 as in BALB/3T3 and phosphorylation of the src protein was observed in v-src-transfected BALB/3T3 and MO-5 clones. Hybrids between mTag- or v-src-induced transformants of BALB/3T3 and untransformed MO-5 maintained the transformation phenotype, suggesting that no dominant suppressor of transformation exists in MO-5. A hybrid clone between BALB/3T3 and MO-5 induced efficient transformation foci after transfection with the mTag gene, suggesting that the deficient transformation phenotype of MO-5 was recessive. Instead, some other alteration of MO-5, plausibly membrane function, might lead to abortive transformation by chemical carcinogens and also by mTag and the v-src gene product.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oita Medical School (Japan)
OSTI Identifier:
6600483
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Mol. Cell. Biol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 8:10
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ANIMAL CELLS; GENE REGULATION; ONCOGENES; BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS; PROTEINS; PHOSPHORYLATION; CARCINOGENS; HEXOSES; MICE; MUTANTS; ONCOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS; PHENOTYPE; ANIMALS; CARBOHYDRATES; CELL TRANSFORMATIONS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; FUNCTIONS; GENES; MAMMALS; MONOSACCHARIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; RODENTS; SACCHARIDES; VERTEBRATES 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Ono, M., Yakushinji, M., Segawa, K., and Kuwano, M. Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens. United States: N. p., 1988. Web. doi:10.1128/MCB.8.10.4190.
Ono, M., Yakushinji, M., Segawa, K., & Kuwano, M. Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens. United States. doi:10.1128/MCB.8.10.4190.
Ono, M., Yakushinji, M., Segawa, K., and Kuwano, M. 1988. "Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens". United States. doi:10.1128/MCB.8.10.4190.
@article{osti_6600483,
title = {Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens},
author = {Ono, M. and Yakushinji, M. and Segawa, K. and Kuwano, M.},
abstractNote = {The mouse cell line MO-5 is resistant to transformation by various chemical carcinogens and also by UV irradiation. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed active expression of ras and myc genes in MO-5 and BALB/3T3 cells. The effect of transfection of various oncogenes on transformation was compared in MO-5 cells and parental BALB/3T3 cells. Activated c-H-ras, c-N-ras, and v-mos gene induced transformation foci of MO-5 and BALB/3T3. Introduction of the polyomavirus middle T-antigen (mTag) or the Rous sarcoma virus-related oncogene v-src, however, efficiently transformed BALB/3T3 but not MO-5 cells. Expression and phosphorylation of mTag and the associated c-src proteins were observed in mTag-transfected clones of MO-5 as in BALB/3T3 and phosphorylation of the src protein was observed in v-src-transfected BALB/3T3 and MO-5 clones. Hybrids between mTag- or v-src-induced transformants of BALB/3T3 and untransformed MO-5 maintained the transformation phenotype, suggesting that no dominant suppressor of transformation exists in MO-5. A hybrid clone between BALB/3T3 and MO-5 induced efficient transformation foci after transfection with the mTag gene, suggesting that the deficient transformation phenotype of MO-5 was recessive. Instead, some other alteration of MO-5, plausibly membrane function, might lead to abortive transformation by chemical carcinogens and also by mTag and the v-src gene product.},
doi = {10.1128/MCB.8.10.4190},
journal = {Mol. Cell. Biol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 8:10,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month =
}
  • Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogenemore » from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.« less
  • Chemically and x-ray-transformed subclones of BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo cells were found to have reduced amounts of the mono- and disialogangliosides galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M$sup 1$/) and N-acetylneuraminylgalactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N- acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub D$sup 1$a/), and increased amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M$sup 2$/). The activity of the enzyme UDP-Gal:G/sub M$sup 2$/ galactosyltransferase was reduced to between 2.7 and 14.3 percent of normal in the transformed clones. Other ganglioside glycosyltransferase activities were unaffected. This enzymatic change was consistent with the observed alteration in ganglioside pattern in the transformed cells. The residual galactosyltransferase activity in the transformed cells was kinetically similar to the normal enzyme, suggestingmore » that transformation alters ganglioside biosynthesis by blocking enzyme synthesis at the translational or transcriptional levels. (auth)« less
  • This study provides a preliminary comparative evaluation of the responses to a series of 49 chemicals, in in vitro transformation assays, of Balb/3T3 cells, Syrian hamster embryo cells, and Fischer 344 rat embryo cells infected with Rauscher murine leukemia virus. The chemicals assayed included aromatic amines; polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons; alkylating agents; nitrosamines, hydrazines, and related compounds; heterocyclic compounds, amides, ureas, and acylating agents; inorganic compounds; and hormones. In all three assays 37 of the chemicals were tested. The most uniform test responses were obtained with the polycyclic aromaic hydrocabons and inorganic compounds. With the other groups of chemicals, more variationmore » in response was observed. This study expands the base of information on the potential of these in vitro transformation systems, and the lack of responses with some of the chemicals underscores the need for incorporation of exogenous metabolic activating systems into these assay systems.« less
  • BALB/c-3T3 cells were employed to examine the genotoxic potential of a variety of known chemical carcinogens. BALB/c-3T3 cells displayed a dose-dependent transformation response to a variety of carcinogens (polycyclic hydrocarbons, methylating agents, ethylating agents, aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFT{sub 1}), and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO)). When the ability of these compounds to induce mutagenesis to resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain (OUA{sup R}) was examined, the authors found the short chain alkylating agents to be particularly effective mutagens, causing biologic effects at doses below those necessary to induce a transformation response. In contrast, the polycyclic hydrocarbons which were potent transforming agents were weaker,more » albeit significant, mutagens for the OUA{sup R} locus in this system, while AFB{sub 1} was quite weak. Further studies were performed with 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and the nongenotoxic carcinogen cinnamyl anthranilate (CIN). 5-AZA was a potent transforming agent, but failed to cause mutagenesis. CIN similarly caused in vitro transformation. When a series of eight structurally diverse compounds were examined in both the BALB/c-3T3 and C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblast transformation systems, the BALB/c-3T3 system was shown to be sensitive to a wide variety of potential carcinogens, whereas the C3H10T1/2 system proved routinely sensitive only to the polycyclic hydrocarbons.« less
  • A mutant clone (MO-5) was originally isolated as a clone resistant to Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ionophoric antibiotic monensin from mouse Balb/c3T3 cells. MO-5 was found to show low receptor-endocytosis activity for epidermal growth factor (EGF):binding activity for EGF in MO-5 was less than one tenth of that in Balb/c3T3. Anchorage-independent growth of MO-5 was compared to that of Balb/c3T3 when assayed by colony formation capacity in soft agar. Coadministration of EGF and TGF-..beta.. efficiently enhanced anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, but neither factor alone was competent to promote the anchorage-independent growth. The frequency of colonies appearing inmore » soft agar of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3 was significantly enhanced by TGF-..beta.. while EGF did not further enhance that of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3. Colonies of Balb/c3T3 formed in soft agar in the presence of TGF-..beta.. showed low colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Colonies of MO-5 formed by TGF-..beta.. in soft agar, however, showed high colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Pretreatment of MO-5 with TGF-..beta.. induced secretion of TGF-..beta..-like activity from the cells, while the treatment of Balb/c3T3 did not induce the secretion of a significant amount of TGF-..beta..-like activity. The loss of EGF-receptor activity in the stable expression and maintenance of the transformed phenotype in MO-5 is discussed.« less