skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna

Abstract

Standardized chronic life-cycle toxicity testing procedures for aquatic species are described. The reproducibility of chronic toxicity and points using the static-renewal method with Daphnia magna are investigated. The objectives were to determine if the lowest rejected concentrations tested (LRCTs) obtained for six different toxicity criteria in static-renewal tests with acridine were reproducible over time and to determine the relative sensitivity and variability of the toxicity criteria. Two of the six toxicity criteria, numbers of young per brood and the young produced per female, were found to be reliable and sensitive for estimating the LRCT for acridine to D. magna. (RJC)

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN
OSTI Identifier:
6597341
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-26
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 26:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ACRIDINES; TOXICITY; DAPHNIA; REPRODUCTION; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; LIFE CYCLE; PROGENY; SURVIVAL TIME; TESTING; WATER POLLUTION; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; ARTHROPODS; AZINES; CRUSTACEANS; DATA; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; INFORMATION; INVERTEBRATES; NUMERICAL DATA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; PYRIDINES 560304* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Invertebrates-- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Parkhurst, B.R., Forte, J.L., and Wright, G.P.. Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.1007/BF01622045.
Parkhurst, B.R., Forte, J.L., & Wright, G.P.. Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna. United States. doi:10.1007/BF01622045.
Parkhurst, B.R., Forte, J.L., and Wright, G.P.. 1981. "Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna". United States. doi:10.1007/BF01622045.
@article{osti_6597341,
title = {Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna},
author = {Parkhurst, B.R. and Forte, J.L. and Wright, G.P.},
abstractNote = {Standardized chronic life-cycle toxicity testing procedures for aquatic species are described. The reproducibility of chronic toxicity and points using the static-renewal method with Daphnia magna are investigated. The objectives were to determine if the lowest rejected concentrations tested (LRCTs) obtained for six different toxicity criteria in static-renewal tests with acridine were reproducible over time and to determine the relative sensitivity and variability of the toxicity criteria. Two of the six toxicity criteria, numbers of young per brood and the young produced per female, were found to be reliable and sensitive for estimating the LRCT for acridine to D. magna. (RJC)},
doi = {10.1007/BF01622045},
journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 26:1,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 1
}
  • Ethanol is a commonly used solvent in toxicity testing, yet there are few studies in the literature devoted to its toxicity to zooplankton. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of Daphnia magna Straus 1820 and Ceriodaphnia dubia J. Richard 1894 to ethanol. Two temperatures were selected because most toxicity data involving D. magna has been carried out at 20/sup 0/C while all discussions concerning C. dubia appear to relate to temperatures oscillating around 25/sup 0/C. Thus, the response of these two organisms to ethanol was examined at 20/sup 0/C and at 24/sup 0/C.r
  • The Daphnia magna 21-d test may be required by European authorities as a criterion for the assessment of aquatic chronic toxicity for the notification of new substances. However, this test has several drawbacks. It is labor-intensive, relatively expensive, and requires the breeding of test organisms. The Brachionous calyciflorus 2-d test and Microtox chronic 22-h test do not suffer from these disadvantages and could be used as substitutes for the Daphnia 21-d test for screening assays. During this study, the toxicity of 25 chemicals was measured using both the microtox chronic toxicity and B. calyciflorus 2-d tests, and the no-observed-effect concentrationsmore » (NOECs) were compared to the D. magna 21-d test. The Brachionus test was slightly less sensitive than the Daphnia test, but the correlation between the two tests was relatively good (r{sup 2} = 0.54). The B. calyciflorus 2-d test, and to a lesser extent the Microtox chronic 22-h test, were able to predict the chronic toxicity values of the Daphnia 21-d test. They constitute promising cost-effective tools for chronic toxicity screening.« less
  • To determine whether significant differences exist in the sensitivity of different Daphnia species to toxicants, the acute toxicity of the first 30 MEIC (multicenter evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity) reference chemicals was determined in two species of Daphnia: D. magna and D. pulex. Correlation and regression analysis of the EC50 data for immobilization showed a very good concordance (r = 0.97, slope = 1.02). A comparison between the EC50 data obtained for D. magna by two laboratories independently for the 50 MEIC chemicals also showed a good concordance (r = 0.93, slope = 0.91). In both comparisons the regression linemore » did not differ significantly from the regression line for a 1:1 regression. The authors conclude that their study, including a set of reference chemicals, indicates that is no difference in the overall sensitivity of the two Daphnia species and the two clones of D. magna.« less
  • This paper reports on the comparative toxicity of selenium to three common representatives of the warm-water biota, Daphnia magna, Hyallela azteca, and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).
  • In acute toxicity tests, green algae Selenaastrum capricornutum, diatoms Nitzschia palea, adult snails Physa gyrina, juvenile cladocerans Daphnia magna, larval midges Chironomus tentans, adult amphipods Gammarus minus, juvenile fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, and embryo-larva stages of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were exposed for 4 hours (algae), 48 hours (arthropods and snails), 96 hours (fathead minnows), 7 days (large-mouth bass), and 27 days (rainbow trout) to two phenols (phenol and ..beta..-naphthol), two azaarenes (quinoline and acridine), and two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and phenanthrene) present in coal-derived oils. Median lethal or median effective concentrations (LC50s ormore » EC50s) ranged from 0.03 mg/liter for phenanthrene and rainbow trout to 286.54 mg/liter for phenol and the green alga. The rainbow trout embryo-larva assay was the most sensitive of the test systems to all the chemicals except quinoline. For this last compound, systems with juvenile fathead minnows and largemouth bass embryos were the most sensitive. As test systems, fish embryos and larvae were the most sensitive, juvenile fathead minnows and arthropods had intermediate sensitivity, and algae and snails were the most resistant to the test compounds under the test conditions. Within each chemical class (phenols, azaarenes, and polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons), toxicity increased with increased ring number except for the reversed relationship with the azaarenes and fathead minnows. Thus, ..beta..-naphthol (two rings) was 2 to 45 times more toxic than phenol (one ring); acridine (three rings) was 7 to 27 times more toxic than quinoline (two rings); and phenanthrene (three rings) was 3 to 9 times more toxic than naphthalene (two rings). 50 references.« less