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Title: Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions

Abstract

Recent data obtained by EPA on identification and quantification of different emissions (i.e., characterization) from a variety of diesel engines is summarized. Extensive work has been done comparing emissions from some light duty diesel and gasoline passenger cars. The work on the diesel vehicles was expanded to include tests with five different diesel fuels to determine how fuel composition affects emissions. This work showed that use of a poorer quality fuel frequently made emissions worse. The investigation of fuel composition continued with a project in which specific fuel parameters were systematically varied to determine their effect on emissions. EPA is presently testing a variety of fuels derived from coal and oil shale to determine their effects on emissions. EPA has also tested a heavy duty Volvo diesel bus engine designed to run on methanol and diesel fuel, each injected through its own injection system. The use of the dual fuel resulted in a reduction in particlates and NO/sub x/ but an increase in HC and CO compared to a baseline Volvo diesel engine running on pure diesel fuel. Finally, some Ames bioassay tests have been performed on samples from the diesel passenger cars operated on various fuels and blends. Anmore » increase in Ames test response (mutagenicity) was seen when the higher aromatic blend was used and also when a commercial cetane improver was used. Samples from the Volvo diesel bus engine fueled with methanol and diesel fuel showed that use of a catalyst increased the Ames response.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI
OSTI Identifier:
6589345
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc.; (United States); Journal Volume: 32:8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DIESEL ENGINES; EXHAUST GASES; DIESEL FUELS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; MUTAGEN SCREENING; BIOASSAY; CARBON MONOXIDE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DUAL-FUEL ENGINES; HYDROCARBONS; NITROGEN OXIDES; PARTICULATES; SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM; US EPA; BACTERIA; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBON OXIDES; CHALCOGENIDES; ENGINES; FLUIDS; GASEOUS WASTES; GASES; HEAT ENGINES; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; MICROORGANISMS; NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PARTICLES; PETROLEUM PRODUCTS; SALMONELLA; SCREENING; US ORGANIZATIONS; WASTES 500200* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Baines, T.M., Somers, J.H., and Hellman, K.H.. Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions. United States: N. p., 1982. Web. doi:10.1080/00022470.1982.10465468.
Baines, T.M., Somers, J.H., & Hellman, K.H.. Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions. United States. doi:10.1080/00022470.1982.10465468.
Baines, T.M., Somers, J.H., and Hellman, K.H.. 1982. "Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions". United States. doi:10.1080/00022470.1982.10465468.
@article{osti_6589345,
title = {Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions},
author = {Baines, T.M. and Somers, J.H. and Hellman, K.H.},
abstractNote = {Recent data obtained by EPA on identification and quantification of different emissions (i.e., characterization) from a variety of diesel engines is summarized. Extensive work has been done comparing emissions from some light duty diesel and gasoline passenger cars. The work on the diesel vehicles was expanded to include tests with five different diesel fuels to determine how fuel composition affects emissions. This work showed that use of a poorer quality fuel frequently made emissions worse. The investigation of fuel composition continued with a project in which specific fuel parameters were systematically varied to determine their effect on emissions. EPA is presently testing a variety of fuels derived from coal and oil shale to determine their effects on emissions. EPA has also tested a heavy duty Volvo diesel bus engine designed to run on methanol and diesel fuel, each injected through its own injection system. The use of the dual fuel resulted in a reduction in particlates and NO/sub x/ but an increase in HC and CO compared to a baseline Volvo diesel engine running on pure diesel fuel. Finally, some Ames bioassay tests have been performed on samples from the diesel passenger cars operated on various fuels and blends. An increase in Ames test response (mutagenicity) was seen when the higher aromatic blend was used and also when a commercial cetane improver was used. Samples from the Volvo diesel bus engine fueled with methanol and diesel fuel showed that use of a catalyst increased the Ames response.},
doi = {10.1080/00022470.1982.10465468},
journal = {J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 32:8,
place = {United States},
year = 1982,
month = 8
}
  • The effects of a barium fuel additive and of fuel sulfur level on diesel particulate emissions were investigated. The barium fuel additive decreased exhaust opacity by 30-40%, as measured by a smoke meter. The opacity reduction is the result of a 30% reduction in the mass emission rate of carbonaceous material. More than 90% of the barium introduced with the fuel can be accounted for in the vehicle exhaust. In the presence of the barium additive, the amount of emitted sulfur oxides is approximately equimolar with the barium. The level of fuel sulfur does not have a significant effect onmore » total particulate mass emission rate. (13 references, 3 tables)« less
  • This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic carbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions, and mutagenic activity] from 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. Engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60, and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramicmore » trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30, and 60 ppm Cu levels. The fuel additive had little effect on baseline emissions (without the trap) of TPM, SOF, XOC, HC, or NO{sub x}. The trap reduced TPM from 72 93% compared to baseline, had no effect on NO{sub x}, and reduced HC about 30% at mode 9 with no consistent change at mode 11. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.« less
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