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Title: Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl

Abstract

After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Bologna (Italy)
OSTI Identifier:
6579680
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 159:5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; CESIUM 134; UPTAKE; CESIUM 137; IODINE 131; MILK; RADIONUCLIDE KINETICS; PLACENTA; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PREGNANCY; RADIATION DOSES; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; USSR; ACCIDENTS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ASIA; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BODY FLUIDS; CESIUM ISOTOPES; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DOSES; EASTERN EUROPE; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; EUROPE; FETAL MEMBRANES; FOOD; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; HOURS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTOPES; IODINE ISOTOPES; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MATERIALS; MEMBRANES; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; POWER REACTORS; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTORS; THERMAL REACTORS; WATER COOLED REACTORS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES 560161* -- Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & Toxicology-- Man

Citation Formats

Gori, G., Cama, G., Guerresi, E., Cocchi, G., Dalla Casa, P., Gattavecchia, E., Ghini, S., and Tonelli, D. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl. United States: N. p., 1988. Web. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(88)90455-3.
Gori, G., Cama, G., Guerresi, E., Cocchi, G., Dalla Casa, P., Gattavecchia, E., Ghini, S., & Tonelli, D. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl. United States. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(88)90455-3.
Gori, G., Cama, G., Guerresi, E., Cocchi, G., Dalla Casa, P., Gattavecchia, E., Ghini, S., and Tonelli, D. 1988. "Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl". United States. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(88)90455-3.
@article{osti_6579680,
title = {Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl},
author = {Gori, G. and Cama, G. and Guerresi, E. and Cocchi, G. and Dalla Casa, P. and Gattavecchia, E. and Ghini, S. and Tonelli, D.},
abstractNote = {After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.},
doi = {10.1016/0002-9378(88)90455-3},
journal = {Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 159:5,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month =
}
  • One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.
  • Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administrationmore » of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.« less
  • More than 150 data sets giving time-dependent concentrations of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in feed and milk of cows after the Chernobyl accident are evaluated using a minimal compartmental modeling approach. Transfer of cesium via the grass-cow-milk pathway is adequately described by a three-compartmental model. No unique model results for {sup 131}I, as a compartment with slow secretion of {sup 131}I into milk, are identified for some datasets only. Frequency distributions of weathering half-lives on grass and of equilibrium feed-to-milk transfer coefficients are approximately lognormal. Mean values of weathering half-lives on plants are 9.1 {plus_minus} 0.6 d for iodinemore » and 11.1 {plus_minus} 0.8 d for cesium, in good agreement with means established from experiments performed before 1986. Mean values of equilibrium feed-to-milk transfer coefficients are 3.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 10{sup {minus}3} d L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 131}I and 5.4 {plus_minus} 0.5 10{sup {minus}3} d L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs. Both are lower than means calculated from the pre-Chernobyl data base. Plausible explanations of the differences include (1) reduced availability of fallout compared to soluble tracer; (2) underestimation of post-Chernobyl transfer coefficients by some experiments concluded too early to record slow transport processes; and (3) reduced transfer of {sup 131}I compared to long-lived iodine isotopes due to decay during fixation in the thyroid. Feed-to-milk transfer of {sup 131}I is related to milk yield, but no influence of milk yield and type of feed on transfer is apparent for cesium. 73 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • Following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, the transfer of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk was studied under experimental and common agricultural conditions. From measurements in different dairy farms in Southern Bavaria, equilibrium transfer coefficients for cow's milk were calculated to be 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0015 to 0.005) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0025 to 0.004) for {sup 137}Cs. In feeding experiments with cows and sheep under more controlled conditions, milk transfer coefficients of 0.007 d L-1 (range 0.0055 to 0.0081) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0023 to 0.0053)more » for {sup 137}Cs were obtained for cows, while for sheep the {sup 137}Cs transfer coefficient was higher: 0.06 d L-1. The kinetics of the Cs transfer from fodder to cow's milk can be described by two exponential terms assuming biological half-lives in milk of 1-2 d and 10-20 d. The use of a fast component with 1.5 d and a fraction of 0.8, and a slow component with 15 d, gives a good approximation to the kinetics for all cows in this experiment.« less
  • Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1 and T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy, between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1992 at the London Regional Cancer Centre. The time intervals from definitive breast surgery to breast irradiation used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), greater than 8 to 12more » weeks (235 patients), greater than 12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and greater than 16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local-recurrence and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of age and pathologic features. No statistically significant difference was seen between the 4 groups in local recurrence or disease-free survival with surgery radiotherapy interval (p = 0.521 and p = 0.222, respectively). The overall local-recurrence rate at 5 and 10 years was 4.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.6% and 67.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that delay in the start of breast irradiation of up to 16 weeks from definitive surgery does not increase the risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancer patients. The certainty of these results is limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis.« less