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Title: Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries

Abstract

In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6558070
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of the American Water Works Association; (USA); Journal Volume: 82:5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; PERSIAN GULF; ENERGY CONSERVATION; SAUDI ARABIA; WATER; AGRICULTURE; DOMESTIC SUPPLIES; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; INDUSTRY; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; STANDARD OF LIVING; SUPPLY AND DEMAND; ARABIAN SEA; ASIA; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INDIAN OCEAN; INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SEAS; SURFACE WATERS 290200* -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Economics & Sociology; 320603 -- Energy Conservation, Consumption, & Utilization-- Municipalities & Community Systems-- Public Utilities-- (1980-); 290400 -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Energy Resources; 291000 -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Conservation

Citation Formats

Akkad, A.A. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Akkad, A.A. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries. United States.
Akkad, A.A. 1990. "Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6558070,
title = {Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries},
author = {Akkad, A.A.},
abstractNote = {In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of the American Water Works Association; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 82:5,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 5
}
  • The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for variousmore » pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.« less
  • Aragonitic intertidal sediments are being dolomitized in the subsurface supratidal environment of a sabkha along the south shore of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a result of the percolation of wind-driven marine-derived brines. The development of abundant diagenetic dolomite results from a optimum combination of high mMg/sup 2 +//mCa/sup 2 +/ ratio fluids, a rapid flow rate which is related to the flooding frequency and sediment permeability, and a shoreline configuration that maintains the proper conditions for a sufficient length of time. Most diagenetic dolomite forms at the expense of primary aragonite according to the reaction: Mg/sup 2 +/ +more » 2CaCO/sub 3/(arag) ..-->.. CaMg(CO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ + Ca/sup 2 +/. Dolomite forms under the following conditions: (a) chloride concentration between 3.25 and 3.75 mCl/sup -//Kg; (b) mMg/sup 2 +//mCa/sup 2 +/ greater than about 6; (c) pH between 6.3 and 6.9; (d) minimum P/sub CO2/ of 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -3/ atm; (e) temperature between 25 and 40/sup 0/C; (f) saturation with respect to gypsum; and (g) reducing environment in association with hydrogen sulfide. Other recent dolomite occurrences in the Bahamas, Florida, and Bonaire are significantly different in terms of stratigraphy, degree of lithification, and evaporite mineral association from those in the Arabian Gulf.« less
  • Because all techniques for transporting natural gas from oil fields such as those of the Arabian Gulf countries, where it is presently being burned off, have serious technical drawbacks, it is suggested that energy-intensive industries be put near those sources of natural gas. The industry identified as being most attractive is a space launch center, located on the Arabian Gulf, that would be devoted to research projects involving large payloads. The hydrogen required by high performance launchers can be produced by methane by means of the stream-reforming process. The hydrogen would be liquefied by conventional techniques, using electricity derived frommore » natural gas-fueled gas turbines. A combination of electricity, pressurized methane and liquefied natural gas would be used for the operation of space center engineering facilities. The low population density of the geographical region in question is noted as an advantage over existing facilities.« less
  • Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. Whenmore » exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • The Halliburton 219, which is among the most technically advanced service vessels ever designed and built for the offshore petroleum industry, is now stationed at Bahrain on the Arabian Gulf. Operated by Halliburton Services, the high-volume, high-pressure acidizing vessel will service wells on the prolific Arabian Gulf. The 180-ft vessel, which is capable of traveling 12-kn per hr, has a pumping capacity of 5,100 hydraulic hp and will store 90,000 gal of basic raw acid. The operators in an amid-ships control cabin use remote control electronic and pneumatic systems to continuously blend the acid, 5 types of liquid additives andmore » 2 types of dry additives at rates up to 60 bbl per min. Another innovation is a 13,000-gal, 2-compartment acid blending and holding tank. The new vessel is equipped with complete navigational aids including radar, Loran, depth recorder, and gyro autopilot. Its 200-hp bow thruster helps it maintain dynamic positioning in relatively high seas. The 219 has twin screws, each powered by a 1,125-hp diesel engine.« less