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Title: Ambient ozone effects on the ecophysiology of sugar maple (Acer saccharum)

Abstract

Sugar maple is among the most widespread and abundant canopy tree species in eastern North America, and is increasing in abundance in the American midwest; yet recent surveys indicate it is declining throughout much of eastern Canada. A number of factors have been cited as causing or contributing to this decline, including both gaseous air pollutants and acidic deposition. The authors hypothesized that ozone has the potential to act as a predisposing factor for sugar maple decline by affecting net carbon gain, carbon allocation, and carbohydrate reserves, resulting in reduced growth and vigor of sugar maple trees. To test this, 1 yr old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated in open top chambers with charcoal-filtered (ozone free) air, ambient ozone, or ambient ozone {plus minus} 15%. Leaf area, biomass, root:shoot ratio, and instantaneous photosynthetic rate, all potential indicators of short term ozone damage, were not significantly affected by a five month exposure to these ozone levels. Ozone may reduce levels of carbohydrate storage in roots, or alter transport of photosynthate from leaves to root, thereby increasing overwintering mortality or reducing spring growth; results of experiments to test these hypotheses will be presented. The genotype of an individual may also affect itsmore » response to ozone, and the relative sensitivity of populations may vary among geographic sites. They will also present preliminary data related to geographic patterns of susceptibility to ozone among sugar maple populations.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6519646
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Botany; (USA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; AIR POLLUTION; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; MAPLES; SENSITIVITY; ACID RAIN; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; GENETICS; GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATIONS; OZONE; PHOTOSYNTHESIS; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; BIOLOGY; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; MAGNOLIOPHYTA; MAGNOLIOPSIDA; PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS; PLANTS; POLLUTION; RAIN; SYNTHESIS; TREES; VARIATIONS 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 540120 -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 010900 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Scherzer, A.J., and Boerner, R.E.J.. Ambient ozone effects on the ecophysiology of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Scherzer, A.J., & Boerner, R.E.J.. Ambient ozone effects on the ecophysiology of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). United States.
Scherzer, A.J., and Boerner, R.E.J.. 1990. "Ambient ozone effects on the ecophysiology of sugar maple (Acer saccharum)". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6519646,
title = {Ambient ozone effects on the ecophysiology of sugar maple (Acer saccharum)},
author = {Scherzer, A.J. and Boerner, R.E.J.},
abstractNote = {Sugar maple is among the most widespread and abundant canopy tree species in eastern North America, and is increasing in abundance in the American midwest; yet recent surveys indicate it is declining throughout much of eastern Canada. A number of factors have been cited as causing or contributing to this decline, including both gaseous air pollutants and acidic deposition. The authors hypothesized that ozone has the potential to act as a predisposing factor for sugar maple decline by affecting net carbon gain, carbon allocation, and carbohydrate reserves, resulting in reduced growth and vigor of sugar maple trees. To test this, 1 yr old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated in open top chambers with charcoal-filtered (ozone free) air, ambient ozone, or ambient ozone {plus minus} 15%. Leaf area, biomass, root:shoot ratio, and instantaneous photosynthetic rate, all potential indicators of short term ozone damage, were not significantly affected by a five month exposure to these ozone levels. Ozone may reduce levels of carbohydrate storage in roots, or alter transport of photosynthate from leaves to root, thereby increasing overwintering mortality or reducing spring growth; results of experiments to test these hypotheses will be presented. The genotype of an individual may also affect its response to ozone, and the relative sensitivity of populations may vary among geographic sites. They will also present preliminary data related to geographic patterns of susceptibility to ozone among sugar maple populations.},
doi = {},
journal = {American Journal of Botany; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 1
}
  • Leaf surface patterns of Acer saccharum Marsh were investigated from extremely polluted and relatively unpolluted locations in Montreal, Quebec. In the polluted locations, the values for stomatal frequency were lower, and for trichome density higher than the corresponding values in the relatively unpolluted locations. No variation was evident in the subsidiary cell complex. These patterns may suggest adaptive significance in polluted environments.
  • A series of solution culture and greenhouse studies were conducted as part of the ALBIOS project to evaluate the response of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings to Al. Several soil and plant variables were evaluated as possible indicators of plant response to increased Al. Of the soil variables evaluated, 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al was found to be well correlated with plant response. Changes in root branching frequency were found to be an even more sensitive indicator of potential impact, although routine applications in the fieldmore » was deemed impractical. Of the three species evaluated, northern red oak was the most sensitive to increasing Al, exhibiting root growth reductions at Al concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 0.28 mM in two separate experiments. The Ca/Al ratio was found to be particularly important in establishing toxicity thresholds for northern red oak with no Al impacts observed when Ca/Al ratio was greater than 4. In low ionic strength solution culture experiments, shoot growth of European beech was reduced by 40% at an Al concentration of 0.5 mM. Foliage tissue Al concentrations tended to be less reliable than root concentrations as predictors of plant response. Comparison of established critical tissue levels (CTL) of Al to tissue data from various field sites indicated that only northern red oak (CTL = {approximately}6,600 {mu}g g{sup {minus}1}) may be near impact levels, whereas soil and soil solution data indicate rhizosphere levels generally well below those producing an impact. All results and thresholds must be extrapolated with caution because there are many interacting factors producing a variety of responses in the face of seemingly similar experimental treatments.« less
  • Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timbermore » sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.« less
  • A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting thosemore » elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.« less
  • A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. Here in this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatialmore » changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5–6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs.« less