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Title: The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor

Abstract

Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) are expected to present a significant transient flux of energy and particles to the ITER divertor. The threshold for ablation of the graphite target will be reached if the ELM transient exceeds Q/t{sup 1/2} {approximately} 45 MJ-m{sup {minus}2}-s{sup {minus}1/2} where Q is the ELM deposition energy density and t is the ELM deposition time. The ablation parameter in ITER can be determined by scaling four factors from present experiments: the ELM energy loss from the core plasma, the fraction of ELM energy deposited on the divertor target, the area of the ELM profile onto the target, and finally the time for the ELM deposition. Review of the ELM energy loss of Type 1 ELM data suggests an ITER ELM energy loss of 2--6% of the stored energy or 25--80 MJ. The fraction of heating power crossing the separatrix due to ELMs is nearly constant (20--40%) resulting in an inverse relationship between ELM amplitude and frequency. Measurements on DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade indicate that 50--80% of the ELM energy is deposited on the target. There is currently no evidence for a large fraction of the ELM energy being dissipated through radiation. Profiles of the ELM heat flux are typically 1--2more » times the width of steady heat flux between ELMs, with the ELM amplitude usually larger on the inboard target. The ELM deposition time varies from about 0.1 ms in JET to as high as 1.0 ms in ASDEX-Upgrade and DIII-D. The ELM deposition time for ITER will depend upon the level of conductive versus convective transport determined by the ratio of energy to particles released by the ELM. Preliminary analysis suggests that large Type 1 ELMs for low recycling H-mode may exceed the ablation parameter by a factor of 5. Promising regimes with smaller ELMS have been found at other edge operational regimes, including high density with gas puffing, use of rf heating and operation with Type 3 ELMs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  2. Max Planck Inst. fuer Plasmaphysics, Garching (Germany)
  3. Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)
  4. JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
  5. Next European Torus, Garching (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
639770
Report Number(s):
GA-A22860; CONF-980560-
ON: DE98007247; TRN: 98:007915
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-89ER51114
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 13. international conference on plasma surface interactions, San Diego, CA (United States), 18-22 May 1998; Other Information: PBD: Jul 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; ITER TOKAMAK; DIVERTORS; ABLATION; EDGE LOCALIZED MODES; ENERGY ABSORPTION; SCALING LAWS; ENERGY LOSSES; DOUBLET-3 DEVICE; ASDEX TOKAMAK

Citation Formats

Leonard, A.W., Osborne, T.H., Suttrop, W., Hermann, A., Itami, K., Lingertat, J., and Loarte, A.. The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
Leonard, A.W., Osborne, T.H., Suttrop, W., Hermann, A., Itami, K., Lingertat, J., & Loarte, A.. The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor. United States.
Leonard, A.W., Osborne, T.H., Suttrop, W., Hermann, A., Itami, K., Lingertat, J., and Loarte, A.. Wed . "The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/639770.
@article{osti_639770,
title = {The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor},
author = {Leonard, A.W. and Osborne, T.H. and Suttrop, W. and Hermann, A. and Itami, K. and Lingertat, J. and Loarte, A.},
abstractNote = {Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) are expected to present a significant transient flux of energy and particles to the ITER divertor. The threshold for ablation of the graphite target will be reached if the ELM transient exceeds Q/t{sup 1/2} {approximately} 45 MJ-m{sup {minus}2}-s{sup {minus}1/2} where Q is the ELM deposition energy density and t is the ELM deposition time. The ablation parameter in ITER can be determined by scaling four factors from present experiments: the ELM energy loss from the core plasma, the fraction of ELM energy deposited on the divertor target, the area of the ELM profile onto the target, and finally the time for the ELM deposition. Review of the ELM energy loss of Type 1 ELM data suggests an ITER ELM energy loss of 2--6% of the stored energy or 25--80 MJ. The fraction of heating power crossing the separatrix due to ELMs is nearly constant (20--40%) resulting in an inverse relationship between ELM amplitude and frequency. Measurements on DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade indicate that 50--80% of the ELM energy is deposited on the target. There is currently no evidence for a large fraction of the ELM energy being dissipated through radiation. Profiles of the ELM heat flux are typically 1--2 times the width of steady heat flux between ELMs, with the ELM amplitude usually larger on the inboard target. The ELM deposition time varies from about 0.1 ms in JET to as high as 1.0 ms in ASDEX-Upgrade and DIII-D. The ELM deposition time for ITER will depend upon the level of conductive versus convective transport determined by the ratio of energy to particles released by the ELM. Preliminary analysis suggests that large Type 1 ELMs for low recycling H-mode may exceed the ablation parameter by a factor of 5. Promising regimes with smaller ELMS have been found at other edge operational regimes, including high density with gas puffing, use of rf heating and operation with Type 3 ELMs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1998},
month = {Wed Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1998}
}

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