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Title: Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990

Abstract

The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.S. coal mines. One approach is to develop technology for automation of a continuous mining machine. Realization of an autonomous mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation-positioning, and computer control. The report focuses on investigation of one subsystem, an onboard heading system, which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading. The onboard heading system investigated is a multisensor system to determine machine heading, pitch, and roll. A directional gyroscope provides heading (yaw), fluxgate sensors provide a compass heading, and gravity-referenced clinometers give machine pitch and roll. The system utilizes a dedicated microcontroller networked to an external system of computers. Tram commands, supplied to the network from external computers, are executed by the onboard system. Sensor feedback is employed for closed-loop control of machine heading by controlling pivots and turns. The report discusses operating limitations and error sources of system sensors and presents test results of closed-loop control of machine heading.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center
OSTI Identifier:
6294393
Report Number(s):
PB-91-110692/XAB; BUMINES-RI--9326
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Library of Congress catalog card No. 90-2101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CONTINUOUS MINERS; ELECTRONIC GUIDANCE; NAVIGATIONAL INSTRUMENTS; PERFORMANCE; AUTOMATION; CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL; COAL MINING; COMPUTERIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS; GYROSCOPES; ORIENTATION; POSITIONING; SAFETY ENGINEERING; UNDERGROUND MINING; US BUREAU OF MINES; CONTROL; CONTROL SYSTEMS; CUTTER LOADERS; CUTTING MACHINES; ENGINEERING; EQUIPMENT; HAULAGE EQUIPMENT; LOADERS; MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT; MINING; MINING EQUIPMENT; NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; US DOI; US ORGANIZATIONS 012033* -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Underground Mining-- Mine Environment-- (1987-)

Citation Formats

Sammarco, J.J. Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Sammarco, J.J. Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990. United States.
Sammarco, J.J. 1990. "Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6294393,
title = {Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990},
author = {Sammarco, J.J.},
abstractNote = {The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.S. coal mines. One approach is to develop technology for automation of a continuous mining machine. Realization of an autonomous mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation-positioning, and computer control. The report focuses on investigation of one subsystem, an onboard heading system, which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading. The onboard heading system investigated is a multisensor system to determine machine heading, pitch, and roll. A directional gyroscope provides heading (yaw), fluxgate sensors provide a compass heading, and gravity-referenced clinometers give machine pitch and roll. The system utilizes a dedicated microcontroller networked to an external system of computers. Tram commands, supplied to the network from external computers, are executed by the onboard system. Sensor feedback is employed for closed-loop control of machine heading by controlling pivots and turns. The report discusses operating limitations and error sources of system sensors and presents test results of closed-loop control of machine heading.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 1
}

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  • The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.s. coal mines by utilizing computer technologies to meet these goals. The technology required for a computer-assisted mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation positioning, and computer control. This report focuses on one subsystem (an on-board heading system), which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading (direction of travel). The on-board heading system is a multisensor, computer-based system that determines machine heading, pitch, and roll. This paper presents the operating limitations and error sources of the system, along with implementation of closed-loop controlmore » of machine yaw. Results form mine machine tests are used to exhibit the various sensor shortcomings and evaluate heading control during tests of machine pivots and turns.« less
  • The report presents the results of the study and experimentation on coal-seam interface sensing using the acoustic pulse-echo technique. This method was chosen for further development subsequent to initial feasibility studies investigating other acoustic, electrical, magnetic, nucleonic, and mechanical techniques. The design and construction of acoustic transducers and coupling techniques are discussed and the electronic equipment used in conjunction with the transducers is described. Laboratory coal simulation experiments are described and the results of acoustic transmission and reflection laboratory experiments, using coal samples from various sources, are presented. It was found that the propagation of acoustic energy varied widely inmore » different coal samples. An underground field test was performed for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the technique for measuring coal thickness in situ prior to final hardware design and construction. The results of the field test, which showed that detection of the coal seam interface was difficult using state-of-the-art techniques because of competing signal returns, are discussed. (GRA)« less
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  • As part of a project to automate coal extraction, computer control of a continuous mining machine test bed has been developed and tested by the Bureau of Mines. A computer system and control software were developed for accurate positioning of the conveyor elevation and swing, stabilizer jack, gathering head, and shear elevation. Tramming actions are also controlled by the computer. The computer system was designed to access data from sensors installed on a continuous miner and to interface with the existing control circuits of the miner. Testing in free space was used to characterize the operation of the machine. Frommore » this information, control algorithms were written and stored in the computer. The ability to control each function of the continuous miner with a high degree of accuracy and stability was successfully demonstrated in a series of tests in free space and in mining a block of simulated coal. In the mining of simulated coal, the cutting drum was instructed to position the shearer at the top of the block and shear down to the bottom under closed loop control. The cutting drum came within 0.27 in of the top and within 0.49 in of the bottom of the block for this shearing test.« less
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