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Title: Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments

Abstract

Bacteria able to degrade either 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or phenanthrene (PHEN) were isolated from polluted freshwater environments. Two isolates able to degrade each compound were tested for mineralization with a sensitive /sup 14/C assay and for survival in lake water and sewage using a selective medium. One DCP isolate was identified as Alcaligenes paradoxus and the other as Alcaligenes sp. One PHEN isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and the other as Pseudomonas sp. All four isolates survived and grew in sterile environments which indicated that starvation would not be a factor in survival of these strains. The number of organisms declined immediately in number in nonsterile lake water. However, they did survive or even grow in nonsterile sewage for a short period before declining in number. Biotic factors appeared to be influential for survival and mineralization of target compounds in many environments. The removal of protozoa, which prey on bacteria, improved survival of the added cells, but had no influence on the mineralization of 10 ..mu..g DCP/L. In comparison, degradation of 10 and 25 mg DCP/L stopped after a few days. Yeast nitrogen base appeared to overcome the lack of nutrient regeneration, a function attributed to protozoa. The additional nutrientsmore » increased toxicant mineralization, especially when seeded with appropriate species. Thus, protozoa may limit growth of added cells but appear to be needed for mineralization of higher concentrations of DCP.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Memphis State Univ., TN (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6277243
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6277243
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; BACTERIA; SURVIVAL TIME; CHLORINATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; BIODEGRADATION; PHENANTHRENE; CARBON 14 COMPOUNDS; FRESH WATER; GROWTH; MINERALIZATION; PROTOZOA; PSEUDOMONAS; RADIOASSAY; WATER POLLUTION; ANIMALS; AROMATICS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CONDENSED AROMATICS; DECOMPOSITION; HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INVERTEBRATES; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; WATER 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 550501 -- Metabolism-- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

King, V.M.. Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
King, V.M.. Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments. United States.
King, V.M.. Thu . "Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6277243,
title = {Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments},
author = {King, V.M.},
abstractNote = {Bacteria able to degrade either 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or phenanthrene (PHEN) were isolated from polluted freshwater environments. Two isolates able to degrade each compound were tested for mineralization with a sensitive /sup 14/C assay and for survival in lake water and sewage using a selective medium. One DCP isolate was identified as Alcaligenes paradoxus and the other as Alcaligenes sp. One PHEN isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and the other as Pseudomonas sp. All four isolates survived and grew in sterile environments which indicated that starvation would not be a factor in survival of these strains. The number of organisms declined immediately in number in nonsterile lake water. However, they did survive or even grow in nonsterile sewage for a short period before declining in number. Biotic factors appeared to be influential for survival and mineralization of target compounds in many environments. The removal of protozoa, which prey on bacteria, improved survival of the added cells, but had no influence on the mineralization of 10 ..mu..g DCP/L. In comparison, degradation of 10 and 25 mg DCP/L stopped after a few days. Yeast nitrogen base appeared to overcome the lack of nutrient regeneration, a function attributed to protozoa. The additional nutrients increased toxicant mineralization, especially when seeded with appropriate species. Thus, protozoa may limit growth of added cells but appear to be needed for mineralization of higher concentrations of DCP.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1987},
month = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1987}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
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  • Heterotrophic bacterioplankton can play an important role in the mineralization of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in aquatic ecosystems. During the summer growing season, dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the epilimnion of Castle Lake is often below detection, thus phytoplankton production is dependent upon N-regeneration mechanisms. The specific objectives were threefold: (1) analyze seasonal variation of dissolved organic nitrogen in relation to primary productivity and biomass, (2) determine the fraction of dissolved organic nitrogen composed of dissolved free amino acids, and (3) determine mineralization rates of amino acid nitrogen. The concentration and composition of DON varied seasonally. Dissolved free amino acids comprisedmore » 5-8% of the DON. Sediment release appeared to be the most important source of the observed increase of DON. The mineralization of amino acid carbon and nitrogen was measured with /sup 14/C- and /sup 15/N-labeled amino acids. Total amino acid nitrogen flux was calculated and a conservative estimate showed that amino acid mineralization could supply a minimum of 2% of the phytoplankton N-requirements. However, amino acids are only one component of DON and there are many other substrates available for bacterial mineralization. Further research on the differential carbon and nitrogen metabolism of other components of DON are still needed. This approach provides useful information on the role of DON in the nitrogen dynamics of aquatic ecosystems.« less
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  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious environmental pollutants that cause a number of diverse toxicities. The chemical stability of PCBs is responsible for their persistence in the environment, while their lipid solubility and resistance to biotransformation results in their accumulation in a number of animal species. The rate of PCB elimination is dependent on the ability of each animal species to metabolize a particular PCB congener. The goal of this project was to determine if in vitro liver microsomal metabolism studies could predict in vivo metabolism and to examine the reasons for the species variation in PCB metabolism. In summary, formore » certain classes of compounds in vitro to in vivo extrapolation is possible and may prove to be very useful in predicting the appropriate animal model for humans. Secondly,the dog appears to be quite different in its metabolism not involving an arene oxide.« less
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