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Title: Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

Abstract

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were found in relatively high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash because a thin surface layer of peat-production bogs was extracted as fuel peat soon after the fallout occurred. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in fuel peat and peat ash were measured at six peat-fired power plants in Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in composite peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg-1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68,000 Bq kg-1. High concentrations in peat ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
OSTI Identifier:
6157253
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Health Phys.; (United States); Journal Volume: 56:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CESIUM 137; RADIOECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; FINLAND; RADIATION MONITORING; PEAT; CONTAMINATION; AIR POLLUTION; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; FALLOUT; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; SOILS; UKRAINIAN SSR; ACCIDENTS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ASIA; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; EASTERN EUROPE; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENERGY SOURCES; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; EUROPE; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MASS TRANSFER; MONITORING; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ORGANIC MATTER; POLLUTION; POWER REACTORS; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTORS; SCANDINAVIA; THERMAL REACTORS; USSR; WATER COOLED REACTORS; WESTERN EUROPE; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 510300* - Environment, Terrestrial- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Mustonen, R.A., Reponen, A.R., and Jantunen, M.J. Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. United States: N. p., 1989. Web. doi:10.1097/00004032-198904000-00006.
Mustonen, R.A., Reponen, A.R., & Jantunen, M.J. Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. United States. doi:10.1097/00004032-198904000-00006.
Mustonen, R.A., Reponen, A.R., and Jantunen, M.J. 1989. "Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident". United States. doi:10.1097/00004032-198904000-00006.
@article{osti_6157253,
title = {Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident},
author = {Mustonen, R.A. and Reponen, A.R. and Jantunen, M.J.},
abstractNote = {The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were found in relatively high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash because a thin surface layer of peat-production bogs was extracted as fuel peat soon after the fallout occurred. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in fuel peat and peat ash were measured at six peat-fired power plants in Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in composite peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg-1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68,000 Bq kg-1. High concentrations in peat ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes.},
doi = {10.1097/00004032-198904000-00006},
journal = {Health Phys.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 56:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 4
}
  • Fractal analysis is introduced in the field of environmental health physics. In particular, it is applied to the complex and inhomogeneous deposition pattern of radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident. The patchiness of 137Cs hot spots is quantified by a fractal dimension as low as 1. The problem of finding hot spots that might be of health concern is discussed.
  • A substantial increase in fission product activity was observed in various environmental samples taken in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident. The concentration of long-lived fission products in air above ground, precipitation, grass, vegetation and milk were monitored in the next 7 wk. The individual effective dose equivalent committed by the first year of exposure and intake following the accident were evaluated. Average individual doses for the population in Taiwan are estimated at 0.9 microSv due to global fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This value is lower than that reported in neighboring countries in the Far East and poses no increasedmore » health impact to the public in Taiwan.« less
  • On the basis of measurements of the specific radioactivity of soil specimens sampled with a small step along their deposition, depth profiles are plotted for the curves of the vertical change in {sup 137}Cs in peat soils not treated since the Chernobyl accident. A theoretical analysis is provided for the plotted profiles that shows that the vertical transfer of {sup 137}Cs in these soils is described adequately within the framework of a model that accounts for the processes of diffusion and convection of the radionuclide in the soil solution and its sorption by the solid phase of the soil. Themore » parameters of the model are determined and a prediction is given for the migration character of {sup 137}Cs.« less
  • The fallout of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident gave rise to the need for large numbers of field and market surveys for radioactivity in foodstuffs in Germany. Due to the implementation of new government-mandated limits and a change in consumer attitudes, this need still persists today. In this article, the various methods available for measuring radioactivity in foodstuffs are reviewed and categorized by the type of information obtained and the degree of sample pretreatment required. A new category of instrument -- a consumer version of a simple NaI(Tl) gross gamma counter -- is introduced.
  • After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regardmore » to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.« less