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Title: Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

Abstract

Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Letterman Army Institute of Research, Presidio of San Francisco, CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
6021397
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6021397
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.; (United States); Journal Volume: 5:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AMIDES; SKIN ABSORPTION; PHTHALATES; ACRYLATES; CARBON ISOTOPES; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; EVAPORATION; IN VITRO; METABOLISM; MOSQUITOES; SWINE; TRACER TECHNIQUES; ABSORPTION; ANIMALS; ARTHROPODS; CARBOXYLIC ACID SALTS; DIPTERA; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; INSECTS; INVERTEBRATES; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; ISOTOPES; MAMMALS; ORGANIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; UPTAKE; VERTEBRATES 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 550501 -- Metabolism-- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Reifenrath, W.G., Hawkins, G.S., and Kurtz, M.S.. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Reifenrath, W.G., Hawkins, G.S., & Kurtz, M.S.. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations. United States.
Reifenrath, W.G., Hawkins, G.S., and Kurtz, M.S.. Wed . "Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6021397,
title = {Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations},
author = {Reifenrath, W.G. and Hawkins, G.S. and Kurtz, M.S.},
abstractNote = {Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss.},
doi = {},
journal = {J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 5:1,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1989},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1989}
}
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