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Title: Events and discussions-- Theme 3. properties of rocks and rock masses

Abstract

Theme 3, ''Properties of Rocks and Rock Masses,'' brought 92 papers and thus appears to be the principal subject of interest to this congress. Such a large number of papers precludes an individual analysis. However, it allows evaluation of general ideas and tendencies. Three prelimary observations are presented. The first is the necessity to determine as soon as possible the classification of materials or of their behavior so as to obtain comparable properties. The second observation refers to the cost of rock mechanics tests, particular ''in-situ'' tests. The third observation is that, although the title of this theme indicates a general discussion of the properties of rock masses without any particularz examples, all the papers deal with mechanical characteristics, with the single exception of 2 authors who discuss the electric and thermal conductivity of moist and dry rocks. The papers seem to fall into the following categories: in-situ deformability tests, the relationship between static and dynamic moduli of elasticity, in-situ rupture tests, fissuration in rock masses, fissuration in rocks, weathering, properties of rocks in laboratory samples, and anisotropy. (78 refs.)

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6009055
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6009055
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: 1st Internat. Soc. Rock. Mech. Congr.; (United States); Journal Volume: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; ROCKS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; CLASSIFICATION; FRACTURING; TESTING; WEATHERING; COMMINUTION; ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES; THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES 580300* -- Mineralogy, Petrology, & Rock Mechanics-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Habib, P. Events and discussions-- Theme 3. properties of rocks and rock masses. United States: N. p., 1967. Web.
Habib, P. Events and discussions-- Theme 3. properties of rocks and rock masses. United States.
Habib, P. Sun . "Events and discussions-- Theme 3. properties of rocks and rock masses". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6009055,
title = {Events and discussions-- Theme 3. properties of rocks and rock masses},
author = {Habib, P.},
abstractNote = {Theme 3, ''Properties of Rocks and Rock Masses,'' brought 92 papers and thus appears to be the principal subject of interest to this congress. Such a large number of papers precludes an individual analysis. However, it allows evaluation of general ideas and tendencies. Three prelimary observations are presented. The first is the necessity to determine as soon as possible the classification of materials or of their behavior so as to obtain comparable properties. The second observation refers to the cost of rock mechanics tests, particular ''in-situ'' tests. The third observation is that, although the title of this theme indicates a general discussion of the properties of rock masses without any particularz examples, all the papers deal with mechanical characteristics, with the single exception of 2 authors who discuss the electric and thermal conductivity of moist and dry rocks. The papers seem to fall into the following categories: in-situ deformability tests, the relationship between static and dynamic moduli of elasticity, in-situ rupture tests, fissuration in rock masses, fissuration in rocks, weathering, properties of rocks in laboratory samples, and anisotropy. (78 refs.)},
doi = {},
journal = {1st Internat. Soc. Rock. Mech. Congr.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1967},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1967}
}
  • Theme 3, ''Properties of Rocks and Rock Masses,'' brought 92 papers and thus appears to be the principal subject of interest to this congress. Such a large number of papers precludes an individual analysis. However, it allows evaluation of general ideas and tendencies. Three prelimary observations are presented. The first is the necessity to determine as soon as possible the classification of materials or of their behavior so as to obtain comparable properties. The second observation refers to the cost of rock mechanics tests, particular ''in-situ'' tests. The third observation is that, although the title of this theme indicates amore » general discussion of the properties of rock masses without any particularz examples, all the papers deal with mechanical characteristics, with the single exception of 2 authors who discuss the electric and thermal conductivity of moist and dry rocks. The papers seem to fall into the following categories: in-situ deformability tests, the relationship between static and dynamic moduli of elasticity, in-situ rupture tests, fissuration in rock masses, fissuration in rocks, weathering, properties of rocks in laboratory samples, and anisotropy. (78 refs.)« less
  • Panel members discussing this theme touched on the topics of measuring procedures, stress distributions and their relations with tectonics. In rock mechanics one is concerned with the stress in rock masses due to mining or tunneling, pressure from water in storage dams and forces originating from foundations. The actual stress at any point in the rock mass is the resultant of the stresses caused by such engineering activities and the stresses prevent in the rock mass before these activities started. The latter stresses are referred to as virgin stresses, while the former are known as induced stresses. As far asmore » the virgin stress is concerned, it is convenient to distinguish between the gravitational stress (due to the weight of the super-incumbent rock mass) and the latent stress (due to other natural causes). The induced stress is limited to regions in the vicinity of mining excavations, tunnels, foundations or water storage dams. Its magnitude may attain values many times greater than the virgin stress and its knowledge is therefore of utmost importance in engineering design. (18 refs.)« less
  • Panel members discussing this theme touched on the topics of measuring procedures, stress distributions and their relations with tectonics. In rock mechanics one is concerned with the stress in rock masses due to mining or tunneling, pressure from water in storage dams and forces originating from foundations. The actual stress at any point in the rock mass is the resultant of the stresses caused by such engineering activities and the stresses prevent in the rock mass before these activities started. The latter stresses are referred to as virgin stresses, while the former are known as induced stresses. As far asmore » the virgin stress is concerned, it is convenient to distinguish between the gravitational stress (due to the weight of the super-incumbent rock mass) and the latent stress (due to other natural causes). The induced stress is limited to regions in the vicinity of mining excavations, tunnels, foundations or water storage dams. Its magnitude may attain values many times greater than the virgin stress and its knowledge is therefore of utmost importance in engineering design. (18 refs.)« less
  • The ''state'' of steam, hot water, and steam/water mixtures can be expressed in terms of the following five interdependent variables: pressure, temperature, dryness, enthalpy, and entropy. If any two of these variables are selected as rectangular coordinates of a chart, the other three variables may be represented on that chart by a series of curves. There are ten possible pairs of coordinates, and thus ten possible forms of chart, which can represent the thermodynamic properties of steam and hot water. Each of the ten possible charts is discussed in turn and illustrated. (MHR)
  • Atomic recoil events at and near {l_brace}001{r_brace} surfaces of Ni{sub 3}Al due to elastic collisions between electrons and atoms have been simulated by molecular dynamics to obtain the sputtering threshold energy as a function of atomic species, recoil direction and atomic layer of the primary recoil atom. The minimum sputtering energy occurs for adatoms and is 3.5 and 4.5 eV for Al and Ni adatoms on the Ni-Al surface (denoted 'M'), respectively, and 4.5 eV for both species on the pure Ni surface (denoted 'N'). For atoms within the surface plane, the minimum sputtering energy is 6.0 eV for Almore » and Ni atoms in the M plane and for Ni atoms in the N surface. The sputtering threshold energy increases with increasing angle, {theta}, between the recoil direction and surface normal, and is almost independent of azimuthal angle, {phi}, if {theta} < 60{sup o}; it varies strongly with {phi} when {theta} > 60{sup o}, with a maximum at {phi} = 45{sup o} due to <{l_brace}110{r_brace}> close-packed atomic chains in the surface. The sputtering threshold energy increases significantly for subsurface recoils, except for those that generate efficient energy transfer to a surface atom by a replacement collision sequence. The implications of the results for the prediction of the mass loss due to sputtering during microanalysis in a FEG STEM are discussed.« less