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Title: Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m

Abstract

Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)
OSTI Identifier:
5985627
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Appl. Environ. Microbiol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 55:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DISULFIDES; BIODEGRADATION; SULFIDES; THIOLS; AIR POLLUTION; BACTERIA; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; ODOR; STOICHIOMETRY; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DECOMPOSITION; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS; ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES; POLLUTION; SULFUR COMPOUNDS 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 500200 -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Kanagawa, T., and Mikami, E. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Kanagawa, T., & Mikami, E. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m. United States.
Kanagawa, T., and Mikami, E. 1989. "Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5985627,
title = {Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m},
author = {Kanagawa, T. and Mikami, E.},
abstractNote = {Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.},
doi = {},
journal = {Appl. Environ. Microbiol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 55:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 3
}
  • A thiocyanate hydrolase that catalyzes the first step in thiocyanate degradation was purified to homogeneity from Thiobacillus thioparus, an obligate chemolithotrophic eubacterium metabolizing thiocyanate to sulfate as an energy source. The thiocyanate hydrolase was purified 52-fold by steps involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel column chromatography, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography. The enzyme hydrolyzed 1 mol of thiocyanate to form 1 mol of carbonyl sulfide and 1 mol of ammonia as follows: SCN- + 2H2O----COS + NH3 + OH-. This is the first report describing the hydrolysis of thiocyanate to carbonyl sulfide by an enzyme. The enzyme had a molecular mass ofmore » 126 kDa and was composed of three different subunits: alpha (19 kDa), beta (23 kDa), and gamma (32 kDa). The enzyme exhibited optimal activities at pH 7.5-8.0 and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 degrees C. The Km value for thiocyanate was approximately 11 mM. Immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies against the purified enzyme suggested that it was induced in T. thioparus cells when the cells were grown with thiocyanate.« less
  • The method described is for analysis of trace levels (0 to 200 ppM) of sulfur compounds. Material used for sample transfer lines, 1 cc gas sample loop and nickel column packed with oxi-propionitrile/Porasil C - Durapak 80 to 100 mesh. Two certified standard gas blends were used as calibration gases. Ultrahigh purity helium was used as the carrier gas. An effluent spliter is placed on the outlet of the column to send identical gas streams to the dual flame photometer and the flame ionization detector, thus allowing detection of components simultaneously. The temperature programming profile is described. Flow rates formore » the carrier gas and the flame gases were determined. The calibration blend is analyzed daily to assure optimum performance. Standard 2250-cc stainless steel sampling cylinders are used. Problems related to the analysis of hydrocarbon streams containing hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan appear to be caused by the nature of the material in the sampling cylinders. 6 figures, 2 tables.« less
  • Degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in slurries prepared from sediments of minerotrophic peatland ditches were studied under various conditions. Maximal aerobic dimethyl sulfide-degrading capacities, measured in bottles shaken under an air atmosphere, were 10-fold higher than the maximal anaerobic degrading capacities determined from bottles shaken under N{sub 2} or H{sub 2} atmosphere. Incubations under experimental conditions which mimic the in situ conditions, however, revealed that aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol in freshwater sediments is low due to oxygen limitation. Inhibition studies with bromoethanesulfonic acid and sodium tungstate demonstrated that the degradation of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol inmore » these incubations originated mainly from methanogenic activity. Prolonged incubation under a H{sub 2} atmosphere resulted in lower dimethyl sulfide degradation rates. Kinetic analysis of the data resulted in apparent K{sub m} values (6 to 8 {micro}M) for aerobic dimethyl sulfide degradation which are comparable to those reported for Thiobacillus spp., Hyphomicrobium spp., and other methylotrophs. Apparent K{sub m} values determined for anaerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide were of the same order of magnitude. The low apparent K{sub m} values obtained explain the low dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol concentrations in freshwater sediments that they reported previously. The observations point to methanogenesis as the major mechanism of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol consumption in freshwater sediments.« less
  • The roles of several trophic groups of organisms (methanogens and sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria) in the microbial degradation of methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were studied in freshwater sediments. The incubation of DMS- and MT-amended slurries revealed that methanogens are the dominant DMS and MT utilizers in sulfate-poor freshwater systems. In sediment slurries, which were depleted of sulfate, 75 {micro}mol of DMS was stoichiometrically converted into 112 {micro}mol of methane. The addition of methanol or MT to DMS-degrading slurries at concentrations similar to that of DMS reduced DMS degradation rates. This indicates that the methanogens in freshwater sediments, whichmore » degrade DMS, are also consumers of methanol and MT. To verify whether a competition between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria for DMS or MT takes place in sulfate-rich freshwater systems, the effects of sulfate and inhibitors, like bromoethanesulfonic acid, molybdate, and tungstate, on the degradation of MT and DMS were studied. The results for these sulfate-rich and sulfate-amended slurry incubations clearly demonstrated that besides methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria take part in MT and DMS degradation in freshwater sediments, provided that sulfate is available. The possible involvement of an interspecies hydrogen transfer in these processes is discussed. In general, the study provides evidence for methanogenesis as a major sink for MT and DMS in freshwater sediments.« less
  • Marine phytoplankton produce ~109 tons of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) per year1,2, an estimated 10% of which is catabolized by bacteria through the DMSP cleavage pathway to the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS)3,4. SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria (order Pelagibacterales), the most abundant chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the oceans, have been shown to assimilate DMSP into biomass, thereby supplying this cell’s unusual requirement for reduced sulfur5,6. Here we report that Pelagibacter HTCC1062 produces the gas methanethiol (MeSH) and that simultaneously a second DMSP catabolic pathway, mediated by a DMSP lyase, shunts as much as 59% of DMSP uptake to DMS production. We propose a modelmore » in which the allocation of DMSP between these pathways is kinetically controlled to release increasing amounts of DMS as the supply of DMSP exceeds cellular sulfur demands for biosynthesis. These findings suggest that DMSP supply and demand relationships in Pelagibacter metabolism are important to determining rates of oceanic DMS production.« less