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Title: Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984

Abstract

A new compilation of monthly mean surface air temperature for the Northern Hemisphere for 1851-1984 is presented based on land-based meteorological station data and fixed-position weather ship data. This compilation has been included, thus improving both spatial and temporal coverage. Second, the station data have been analyzed to assess their homogeneity. Only reliable or corrected station data have been used in calculating are averages. Grid point temperature estimates have been made by interpolating onto a 5/sup 0/ latitude by 10/sup 0/ longitude grid for each month of the 134 years. In the period of best data coverage, 58% of the area of the Northern Hemisphere is covered by the available data network. (The remaining area is mainly ocean too far from land based stations to warrant extrapolation.) The reliability of hemisphere estimates is assessed for earlier periods when coverage is less than this maximum. Year-to-year estimates are considered reliable back to about 1875. Estimates earlier than this are judged sufficiently good to indicate trends back to 1851. This new land-based hemisphere temperature curve is compared with recent estimates of Northern Hemisphere temperatures based on marine data. The two independent estimates agree well on the decadal time scale back to themore » start of the century, but important discrepancies exist for earlier times.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
OSTI Identifier:
5946121
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-79EV10098; AC02-81EV10739
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
J. Appl. Meteorol.; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; NORTHERN HEMISPHERE; SURFACE AIR; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; ANNUAL VARIATIONS; AIR; EARTH PLANET; FLUIDS; GASES; PLANETS; VARIATIONS; 500100* - Environment, Atmospheric- Basic Studies- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Jones, P D, Raper, S C.B., Bradley, R S, Diaz, H F, Kelly, P M, and Wigley, T M.L. Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0161:NHSATV>2.0.CO;2.
Jones, P D, Raper, S C.B., Bradley, R S, Diaz, H F, Kelly, P M, & Wigley, T M.L. Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984. United States. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0161:NHSATV>2.0.CO;2.
Jones, P D, Raper, S C.B., Bradley, R S, Diaz, H F, Kelly, P M, and Wigley, T M.L. Sat . "Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984". United States. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0161:NHSATV>2.0.CO;2.
@article{osti_5946121,
title = {Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984},
author = {Jones, P D and Raper, S C.B. and Bradley, R S and Diaz, H F and Kelly, P M and Wigley, T M.L.},
abstractNote = {A new compilation of monthly mean surface air temperature for the Northern Hemisphere for 1851-1984 is presented based on land-based meteorological station data and fixed-position weather ship data. This compilation has been included, thus improving both spatial and temporal coverage. Second, the station data have been analyzed to assess their homogeneity. Only reliable or corrected station data have been used in calculating are averages. Grid point temperature estimates have been made by interpolating onto a 5/sup 0/ latitude by 10/sup 0/ longitude grid for each month of the 134 years. In the period of best data coverage, 58% of the area of the Northern Hemisphere is covered by the available data network. (The remaining area is mainly ocean too far from land based stations to warrant extrapolation.) The reliability of hemisphere estimates is assessed for earlier periods when coverage is less than this maximum. Year-to-year estimates are considered reliable back to about 1875. Estimates earlier than this are judged sufficiently good to indicate trends back to 1851. This new land-based hemisphere temperature curve is compared with recent estimates of Northern Hemisphere temperatures based on marine data. The two independent estimates agree well on the decadal time scale back to the start of the century, but important discrepancies exist for earlier times.},
doi = {10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0161:NHSATV>2.0.CO;2},
journal = {J. Appl. Meteorol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 25:2,
place = {United States},
year = {1986},
month = {2}
}