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Title: Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994

Abstract

We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tipsmore » of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
594464
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/45345-T2
ON: DE98004777; TRN: 98:001909
DOE Contract Number:
FG05-88ER45345
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: May 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PROGRESS REPORT; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; DIAMONDS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; TOPOLOGY; COATINGS

Citation Formats

Nix, W.D. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.2172/594464.
Nix, W.D. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994. United States. doi:10.2172/594464.
Nix, W.D. Mon . "Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994". United States. doi:10.2172/594464. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/594464.
@article{osti_594464,
title = {Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994},
author = {Nix, W.D.},
abstractNote = {We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tips of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.},
doi = {10.2172/594464},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1995},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1995}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The plasma or thermally enhanced low pressure chemical vapor deposition of diamond films is an exciting development with many challenging fundamental problems. The early stages of nucleation is relevant to the initial growth rate and the perfection and morphology of the deposit. To isolate one of the factors that influence nucleation, we have studied the effect of surface topography on the nucleation process. Our earlier work has shown preferential nucleation on sharp convex features and we have proposed several possible reasons for this behavior, including dangling bonds at the convex features. In our recent work, we have extended our investigationmore » to include a novel patterning of silicon substrates used to pattern silicon solar cells. The results are consistent with our earlier observations that the majority of nucleation events occur on protruding surface features. In an effort to establish whether dangling bonds at the protruding surfaces may be responsible for the selective nucleation, we have evaluated the dangling bond concentration using electron spin resonance. We have carried out deposition under nominally identical surface topography, but with different concentrations of dangling bonds at or near the surface. The results of this study indicate that dangling bonds play a minor role in enhancing nucleation, in contrast to a substantial role played by special surface topographical features. In the course of the past year, we have submitted four manuscripts for publication and have made six presentations.« less
  • This report describes research to reduce the intrinsic bonding defects in amorphous and microcrystalline Si alloys by controlling the bonding chemistry and the microstructure via the deposition process reactions. The specific approach was to use remote plasma-enhanced, chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) and reactive magnetron sputtering to limit the multiplicity of deposition inaction pathways, and thereby gain increased control over the thin-film chemistry and microstrucre. The research included (1) the deposition of amorphous and microcrystalline Si alloy materials by the PECVD process and by reactive magnetron sputtering, and (2) the evaluation of the material properties of these films for potential applications inmore » PV devices. The focus of the research was on pining a fundamental understanding of the relationships between deposition reaction pathways, the bonding of dopant and alloy atoms, and the electrical provides of importance for PV applications. This involved studying the factors that contribute to defect generation and to defect removal and/or neutralization. In addition to the experimental studies, the research also included theoretical and modeling studies aimed at understanding the relationships between local atomic arrangements of Si and alloy atoms, and the electrical, optical, vibrational, and defect properties.« less
  • Natural diamond exhibits several properties that indicate its utility as a semiconducting material. It is environmentally robust and an excellent thermal conductor, characteristics which would allow it to operate under temperature and radiation conditions that would render useless more commonly used semiconductors such as silicon and GaAs. In addition, it has optical properties that suggest its use as a short-wavelength turnable laser. Several materials issues have prevented the development of diamond as a semiconductor in device, laser, and related applications. Natural diamond is expensive to obtain in useful sizes. The impurity and defect levels can vary dramatically from one samplemore » to the next, making potential product reproducibility difficult to achieve. It is unavailable in thin film form. High-pressure synthetic diamond is also unsuitable for the foregoing applications because of impurities and inability to produce thin films.« less
  • The work accomplished under this contract largely concerns the properties of superconducting weak links, in the form of either small area oxide-barrier tunnel junctions or of SNS weak links, both of which form Josephson junctions. Two reports concern the response of tunnel junctions to far-infrared radiation, 22 elucidating the response under conditions suitable for mixer and detector applications, and 25 identifying the regimes in which chaotic noise makes the driven junction unusable for applications. The second two reports concern the static properties of junctions: 26 dealing with the effect of geometric disorder in large arrays of Josephson junctions, and 27more » elucidating the properties of oxide barrier junctions that are so small that the charging energy of a single electron dominates the behavior, causing quantum effects which greatly modify the usual semi-classical Josephson junction properties. Work on high temperature superconductivity was also initiated. A. Far-Infrared Response and Chaos in Small-Area Tunnel Junctions; B. Josephson Junction Arrays with Positional Disorder; C. Novel Quantum Phenomena and Charging Effects in Very Small Tunnel Junctions; and D. High Temperature Superconductivity.« less
  • We demonstrated that the remote PECVD process can be used to deposit heavily doped n-type and p-type a-Si:H thin films. We optimized conditions for depositing undoped, near-intrinsic and heavily doped thin films of {mu}c(microcrystalline)-Si by remote PECVD. We extended the remote PECVD process to the deposition of undoped and doped a-Si,C:H and {mu}c-Si,C alloy films. We analyzed transport data for the dark conductivity in undoped and doped a-Si:H, a-Si,C:H, {mu}c-Si and {mu}c-Si,C films. We studied the properties of doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si in MOS capacitors using {approximately}10 {Omega}-cm p-type crystalline substrates and thermally grown Si0{sub 2} dielectric layers. We collaboratedmore » with a group at RWTH in Aachen, Germany, and studied the contributions of process induced defect states to the recombination of photogenerated electron pairs. We applied a tight-binding model to Si-Bethe lattice structures to investigate the effects of bond angle, and dihedral angle disorder. We used ab initio and empirical calculations to study non-random bonding arrangements in a-Si,O:H and doped a-Si:H films.« less