skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nutrient translocation in the outer canopy and understory of an eastern deciduous forest

Abstract

The translocation of nutrients into and out of outer canopy leaves of ten eastern deciduous forest species was calculated from the temporal patterns of foliar nutrient pools sampled through a growing season. The calculations accounted for average chemical leaching effects due to rainfall. There were no significant differences in translocation rate between species within the evergreen, understory, or overstory-deciduous tree groups. Evergreen species had lower translocation rates than deciduous trees. Translocation rates into leaves of deciduous species showed a very rapid increase during spring; however, by late May, foliar phosphorus was being translocated at a slow rate back to stems. A similar trend was established for nitrogen by mid-June. An internal storage pool is suggested as the major source of foliar nitrogen during the spring flush since a simulation of nitrogen uptake from soil could only account for one-fourth of the quantity of nitrogen transported to leaves by the end of May. Simulation further showed that trace levels of soluble nitrogen (0.01 ppm) in soil were sufficient to supply a deciduous forest with an estimated nitrogen uptake of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN
OSTI Identifier:
5761285
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-26
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: For. Sci.; (United States); Journal Volume: 27:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CALCIUM; TRANSLOCATION; MAGNESIUM; NITROGEN; PHOSPHORUS; POTASSIUM; SODIUM; SEASONAL VARIATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; FORESTS; KINETICS; LEACHING; LEAVES; PRODUCTIVITY; SPECIES DIVERSITY; STIMULATION; TREES; ALKALI METALS; ALKALINE EARTH METALS; DISSOLUTION; ELEMENTS; METALS; NONMETALS; PLANTS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SIMULATION; VARIATIONS; 550500* - Metabolism

Citation Formats

Luxmoore, R.J., Grizzard, T., and Strand, R.H. Nutrient translocation in the outer canopy and understory of an eastern deciduous forest. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Luxmoore, R.J., Grizzard, T., & Strand, R.H. Nutrient translocation in the outer canopy and understory of an eastern deciduous forest. United States.
Luxmoore, R.J., Grizzard, T., and Strand, R.H. Tue . "Nutrient translocation in the outer canopy and understory of an eastern deciduous forest". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5761285,
title = {Nutrient translocation in the outer canopy and understory of an eastern deciduous forest},
author = {Luxmoore, R.J. and Grizzard, T. and Strand, R.H.},
abstractNote = {The translocation of nutrients into and out of outer canopy leaves of ten eastern deciduous forest species was calculated from the temporal patterns of foliar nutrient pools sampled through a growing season. The calculations accounted for average chemical leaching effects due to rainfall. There were no significant differences in translocation rate between species within the evergreen, understory, or overstory-deciduous tree groups. Evergreen species had lower translocation rates than deciduous trees. Translocation rates into leaves of deciduous species showed a very rapid increase during spring; however, by late May, foliar phosphorus was being translocated at a slow rate back to stems. A similar trend was established for nitrogen by mid-June. An internal storage pool is suggested as the major source of foliar nitrogen during the spring flush since a simulation of nitrogen uptake from soil could only account for one-fourth of the quantity of nitrogen transported to leaves by the end of May. Simulation further showed that trace levels of soluble nitrogen (0.01 ppm) in soil were sufficient to supply a deciduous forest with an estimated nitrogen uptake of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/.},
doi = {},
journal = {For. Sci.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 27:3,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1981},
month = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1981}
}
  • A sequence of 49 small stands of increasing mean diameter from Menominee Forest in northern Wisconsin illustrates the development of stand structure. Density-diameter distributions of natural old-growth stands of small area or uniform structure are of a rotated sigmoid form rather than the previously reported negative exponential form. The negative exponential form seems characteristic of large forest tracts having localized patches of even-aged trees. In smaller stands where interactions between canopy and understory are important, the typical stand structure curve shows an understory phase of slow growth and high mortality, a vigorous canopy phase of relatively rapid growth and lowmore » mortality, and an older canopy phase of reduced growth and increasing mortality. (auth)« less
  • Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed to further model development and improve our understanding of carbon and water cycling.« less
    Cited by 12
  • Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed to further model development and improve our understanding of carbon and water cycling.« less
  • Nutrient contents of canopy throughfall precipitation (TFP) from fertilized and unfertilized crops were analyzed and compared to determine the importance of fertilization on this source of nutrients in runoff. Continuous barley, corn, oats, rye, and wheat plots, that had been unfertilized since 1941 and divided and half fertilized since 1959, were studied. TFP soluble PO/sub 4/, total PO/sub 4/, and soluble K amounts were usually larger from fertilized plots in comparison to unfertilized ones but the differences usually were not significant. NH/sub 4//sup -n/ and NO/sub 3//sup -n/ may have been adsorbed from precipitation by corn canopies.
  • This paper describes differences in canopy arthropod community structure, major cation content, and calculated nutrient consumption between clearcut and undisturbed hardwood forest watersheds at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, USA, during the first two growing seasons following cutting. Although canopy arthropod biomass was about 0.08% of foliage biomass on both watersheds, aphid mass increased 23-fold and ant mass increased 6-fold per unit foliage mass following cutting. These groups in general had lower nutrient concentrations than did chewing herbivores and predators. Arthropod K concentrations were 33% lower on the clearcut; Na, K, and Mg concentrations were 20 to 50% higher inmore » 1978 than in 1977. Arthropod Mg and Ca concentrations, but not Na and K, were reduced significantly more by the greater effect of drought on the clearcut watershed. Consumption estimates based in part on consumption rates reported by others indicated increased nutrient translocation from foilage via arthropods following cutting. These data indicated that canopy arthropod responses to changes in nutrient availability following disturbance could have increased nutrient cycling rates and contributed to nutrient retention by the recovering ecosystem.« less